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Henry David Thoreau by Stephen Alcorn, 1982.

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Tafuri, Manfredo (1976). Architecture and Utopia: Design and Capitalist Development. Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press.
Written from a neo-Marxist point of view by a prominent Italian architectural historian, Architecture and Utopia leads the reader beyond architectural form into a broader understanding of the relation of architecture to society and architects to the workforce and the marketplace. It discusses the Garden Cities movement and the suburban developments it generated, the German-Russian architectural experiments of the 1920s, the place of the avant-garde in the plastic arts, the uses and pitfalls of semiological approaches to architecture, and assesses the prospects of socialist alternatives.

Tafuri, Manfredo and Francesco Dal Co (1986). Modern Architecture
. New York, Electa/Rizzoli.
Modern Architecture/1 and 2 document the diversity and change that have taken place in architecture and urban design during the past 100 years. Volume one covers issues from urbansm and town planning at the turn of the century through the dork of design groups such as the Deutsche Werkbund and individuals such as Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright to nationalistic and totalitarian architecture in Italy and Germany prior to and during World War II. Volume two traces concepts of urbanism and building theories after World War II through the 1970s, following the work of architects such as Mies van der Rohe and Alvar Aalto as well as the younger generation of practitioners of international reputation and influence.

Taibbi, Matt (2014). The Divide: American Injustice in the Age of the Wealth Gap
. Victoria, Australia, Scribe Publications.
Matt Taibbi's genius is in untangling complex stories and making us care about them by providing striking moral clarity and a genuine sense of outrage. He has become among the most read journalists in America, leading the dialogue with epic Rolling Stone pieces that offer an "almost startling reminder of the power of good writing" (Washington Post). In this new work, he once again takes readers into the biggest, most urgent story in America: a widening wealth gap that is not only reshaping our economic life, but changing our core sense of right and wrong. The wealthy 1% operate with near impunity, while everyone else finds their very existence the subject of massive law enforcement attention: from stop-and-frisk programs and the immigrant dragnet to invasive surveillance and the abuse of debtors. Driven by immersive reporting, this is a stunning look into the newest high-stakes divide in our country: between a lawless aristocracy of hyperwealth and the rest of us, living under the shadow of an incipient American police state.

Talbot, David (2012). Season of the Witch : Enchantment, Terror, and Deliverance in the City of Love
. New York, Free Press.
In a kaleidoscopic narrative, bestselling author David Talbot recounts the gripping story of San Francisco in the turbulent years between 1967 and 1982--and of the extraordinary men and women who led to the city's ultimate rebirth and triumph. Season of the Witch is the first book to fully capture the dark magic of San Francisco in this breathtaking period, when the city radically changed itself--and then revolutionized the world. The cool gray city of love was the epicenter of the 1960s cultural revolution. But by the early 1970s, San Francisco's ecstatic experiment came crashing down from its starry heights. The city was rocked by savage murder sprees, mysterious terror campaigns, political assassinations, street riots, and finally a terrifying sexual epidemic. No other city endured so many calamities in such a short time span.

Tan, Shaun (2007). The Arrival
. New York, Arthur A. Levine Books.
In this wordless graphic novel, a man leaves his homeland and sets off for a new country, where he must build a new life for himself and his family.

Tan, Zaldy S. (2006). Age-Proof Your Mind: Detect, Delay and Prevent Memory Loss, before It's Too Late
. New York, Warner Wellness.
Whether readers experience occasional lapses ("Where did I put my car keys?" "Why did I open this closet door?") or are concerned about a family tendency toward Alzheimer's, Tan offers information, exercises, resources and advice to help them sort out whether their memory loss is minor or indicates a deeper problem. The author, who directs a Boston memory disorders clinic, explores the connection between diet and memory and explains the effects Vitamin E, estrogen and alcohol may have on the brain. Some of his advice may seem standard (get fit, eat healthy foods, reduce stress), but other suggestions (ibuprofen and other anti-inflammatory medicines may help prevent Alzheimer's) will likely pique interest. Tan offers a test for readers to check their mental mettle; they can repeat it later to check their progress. The author also provides tips for improving short-term memory, information about Alzheimer's research, a detailed list of clinical trials and even recipes featuring foods high in brain-boosting antioxidants.

Tanner, Stephen L. (1983). Ken Kesey
. Boston, Twayne Publishers.
American writer, who gained world fame with his novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1962, filmed 1975). Kesey became in the 1960s a counterculture hero and a guru of psychedelic drugs with Timothy Leary. Kesey has been called the Pied Piper who changed the beat generation into the hippie movement.

"I think McMurphy knew better than we did that our tough looks were all show, because he still wasn't able to get a real laugh out of anybody. Maybe he couldn't understand why we weren't able to laugh yet, but he knew you can't really be strong until you see a funny side to things. In fact, he worked so hard of pointing out the funny side of things that I was wondering a little if maybe he was blind to the other side, if maybe he wasn't able to see what it was that parched laughter deep inside your stomach.

(from One Flew Over Cuckoo's Nest)

Ken Kesey was born in La Junta, Colorado, and brought up in Eugene, Oregon. His father worked in the creamery business, in which he was eventually successful after founding the Eugene Farmers Cooperative. Kesey spent his early years hunting, fishing, swimming; he learned to box and wrestle, and he was a star football player. He studied at the University of Oregon, where he acted in college plays. On graduating he won a scholarship to Stanford University. Kesey soon dropped out and joined the counterculture movement. In 1956 he married his school sweetheart, Faye Haxby. He began experimenting with drugs and wrote an unpublished novel, ZOO, about the beatniks of the North Beach community in San Francisco. Tom Wolfe in his book The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test (1968) described Kesey and his friends, called the Merry Pranksters, as they travelled the country and used all kinds of hallucinogens. Wolfe compared somewhat mockingly Kesey to the figures of the world's great religions. Their bus, called Further - actually written "Furthur" on the vehicle - was painted in Day-Glo colors. In California Kesey's friends served LSD-laced Kool-Aid to members of their parties.

At a Veterans Administration hospital in Menlo Park, California, Kesey was paid as a volunteer experimental subject, taking mind-altering drugs and reporting their effects. These experiences as an aide at a psychiatric hospital and LSD sessions formed the background for One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest, which was set in a mental hospital. While writing the work, Kesey took peyote. The story is narrated by Chief Bromden, who is six feet, eight inches tall, a half-American Indian. He lets people think he is a deaf mute. Into his world there enters the petty criminal and prankster Randall Patrick McMurphy with his efforts to change the bureaucratic system of a mental hospital. The mental ward is ruled by Big Nurse Ratched. McMurphy is an involuntary and anarchic patient - the others are there more or less voluntarily. "'My name is McMurphy, buddies. R.P. McMurphy, and I'm gambling fool.' He winks and sings a little piece of song: 'and whenever I meet with a deck a cards I lays my money down' and laughs again." Bromden is a paranoid schizophrenic and through his consciousness the conflict between Nurse Ratched and McMurphy becomes a battle of good and evil. McMurphy encourages the Acutes to take charge of their lives but becomes a victim of the oppressive system. McMurphy plans to escape but after a wild party he is given a frontal lobotomy. Bromden smothers him with a pillow and escapes towards Canada. The book suggests that the really dangerous mental cases are those in positions of authority.

The film adaptation of the book gained a huge success. Kirk Douglas had bought the right to Kesey's novel; he played the role of McMurphy on Broadway in an adaptation by Dale Wasserman. It ran for 82 performances at the Cort Theater during the 1963-64 season. When he failed to interest a studio in the project, he finally turned the package over to his son Michael. Marlon Brando and Gene Hackman refused the role. The film was made in one wing of the Oregon State Hospital. Several actual patients of the hospital played extras. The major change was that while the novel was narrated by Chief Bromden, the film was shot more objectively - Bromden is also the only patient who escapes the hospital. "But Forman does his best to minimize Kesey's misogynist undertones. By making all the characters more fully rounded, he reduces the polarization of good and evil that leaves the novel open to these charges, avoiding the novel's tendency to turn McMurphy into a hero or Christ figure." (from Novels into Film by John C. Tibbetts and James M. Welsh, 1997) When the film won five Academy Awards, Kesey was barely mentioned during the award ceremonies, and he made known his unhappiness with the film. He did not like Jack Nicholson, or the script, and sued the producers.

"This guy's a scamp who knows he's irresistible to women and, in reality, he expects Nurse Ratched to be seduced by him. This is his tragic flaw. This is why he ultimately fails. I discussed this with Louise - I discussed it only with her. That's what I felt was actually happening with that character. It was one long, unsuccessful seduction which the guy was so pathologically sure of." (Jack Nicholson about McMurphy in Jack Nicholson, the Unauthorised Biography by Barbara & Scott Siegel, 1990)

Kesey's next novel, Sometimes a Great Notion appeared two years later and was also made into a film, this time directed by Paul Newman. The story was set in a logging community and centered on two brothers and their bitter rivalry in the family. Hank Stamper is a raw and aggressive man of nature, and his opponent is Draeger, a union official attempting to force local loggers into conformity. Hank's half-brother, the introspective Lee, chooses to retreat into intellectualism instead of action. After the work, Kesey gave up publishing novels. He formed a band of 'Merrie Pranksters', set up a commune in La Honda, California, bought an old school bus, and toured America and Mexico with his friends, among them Neal Cassady, Kerouac's travel companion.

In 1965 Kesey was arrested for possession of marijuana. He fled to Mexico, where he faked an unconvincing suicide and then returned to the United States, serving a five-month prison sentence at the San Mateo County Jail. After this tumultuous period he settled down with his wife to raise their four children, and taught a graduate writing seminar at the University of Oregon. In the early 1970s Kesey returned to writing and published Kesey's Garage Sale (1973). His later works include the children's book Little Tricker the Squirrel Meets Big Double the Bear (1990) and Sailor Song (1992), a futuristic tale about an Alaskan fishing village and Hollywood film crew. Last Go Around (1994), Kesey's last book, was an account of a famous Oregon rodeo written in the form of pulp fiction. Kesey died of complications after surgery for liver cancer on November 10, 2001 in Eugene, Oregon.

Tanner, Tony (2010). Prefaces to Shakespeare
. Cambridge, Mass., Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Tony Tanner was probably the most versatile and ingenious English critic of his time. His prose was exemplary, full of life and humor, and his literary range was extraordinary. The acknowledged leader of British Americanists, he was also admired for his books on Jane Austen, and he broke new ground in Adultery in the Novel and Venice Desired (Harvard 1992). But in his own opinion the Shakespeare Prefaces were his finest work, and it would be difficult to disagree. The essays cover the entire range of the plays, treating them with characteristic brio in that very personal style that accommodates new insights, based on expert close reading, with an easy command of historical and linguistic contexts. I would recommend this book above all others to an interested young person, provided he or she was both intelligent and capable of delight in the poetry of the plays as Tanner makes it manifest. - Sir Frank Kermode

Tarbell, Harlan, Ralph W. Read, et al. (2009). The Tarbell Course in Magic
. Cranbury, N.J., D. Robbins & Co. Inc.
Harlan Eugene Tarbell (1890-1960) was an American stage magician and illustrator of the early 20th century. Publishers T. Grant Cooke and Walter A. Jordan developed an interest in producing a correspondence course in magic in the mid-1920s. Tarbell finished the course in 1928, producing 60 correspondence lessons with at least 3,100 illustrations. Unlike other magic courses which placed a greater emphasis on self-working illusions, Tarbell began with fundamental drills and practice sessions involving body position, movement, and sleight-of-hand techniques which were to be incorporated into actual tricks in future lessons. After selling 10,000 complete courses, Cooke and Jordan discontinued marketing the Tarbell Course in Magic in 1931, blaming the Great Depression for slumping sales. In 1941, however, magician Louis Tannen purchased the rights to the course, working with Tarbell and Ralph W. Read to convert the correspondence lessons into book form. The Tarbell Course in Magic is the preeminent encyclopedia of magic amongst professional and amateur magicians. It has eight volumes; the first five were part of the original home-study correspondence course compiled in 1928 by Dr. Harlan Tarbell, the remaining three volumes being added on later. Further information and complete Table of Contents may be found at Wikipedia.

Tarbell, Ida M. and David Mark Chalmers (2003). The History of the Standard Oil Company
. Mineola, N.Y., Dover Publications.
This muckraking classic, which eventually led to effective regulation of the Standard Oil Company, was the inaugural work for crusading journalists whose mission was to expose corruption in politics and the abuses of big business during the early twentieth century. The history combined descriptions of John D. Rockefeller's business practices with his personal characteristics, creating an image of a cunning and ruthless person--a picture that not even decades of Rockefeller philanthropy were able to dispel. This "briefer version" of the two-volume original edition (published in 1904) makes the book more accessible to students and teachers of American business history and to anyone interested in the days of unregulated commerce.

Tardi, Jacques (2010). The Extraordinary Adventures of Adèle Blanc-Sec, Vol. 1: Pterror Over Paris and the Eiffel Tower Demon
. Seattle, WA, Fantagraphics Books.
Adèle becomes involved in an interlocking series of mysteries that involve a revived pterodactyl, an execution attempt, a frightful on-stage murder, and a demon from the depths of hell – plus of course moronic gendarmes, loyal (or perhaps traitorous?) henchmen, and a climax atop the Eiffel Tower. This is a delightful and vibrant parody on the genre and certainly meant for adults. Plenty of delicious satire is embedded within each ripping yarn set in 1910's Paris, and Tardi's intrepid line work is as thorough as his well-researched and multi-layered plots.

Tardi, Jacques (2011). The Extraordinary Adventures of Adèle Blanc-Sec, Vol. 2: The Mad Scientist and Mummies on Parade
. Seattle, Wash., Fantagraphics Books.
In The Mad Scientist the science that brought us revived dinosaurs now results in a pithecanthrope stalking the streets of the City of Light, climaxing in an amazing car chase involving a foe from the previous volume. Will the perpetually inept Inspector Caponi just make things worse? Probably. Then in the second episode, Mummies on Parade, ”the mummy glimpsed in Adèle's apartment in previous episodes comes alive! The volume concludes with the sudden startling (and delightful) incursion of some characters familiar to Tardi fans, and a shocking climax that leaves the future of both Adèle and this series in doubt as World War I erupts.

Tardi, Jacques, Léo Malet, et al. (2017). Fog Over Tolbiac Bridge: A Nestor Burma Mystery
. Seattle, WA, Fantagraphics Books.
Paris, 1950s. Nestor Burma’s past comes knocking when a young gypsy woman leads him to a hospital where he discovers a recently deceased old buddy from his anarchist days. While Burma has chosen to move onto the (more or less) straight and narrow as a private eye, his friend had stayed on the other side of the law as a counterfeiter and worse. So now it’s up to Burma to avenge his friend, keep the girl safe, and hopefully unravel a mystery whose roots run far and deep back into the past. Fog Over Tolbiac Bridge is the first of four major graphic novels adapted by Tardi from the legendary French crime writer Léo Malet’s original Nestor Burma novels, each set in Paris. Tardi’s stylish use of mechanical gray tones provides the book with a lovely period feel which, combined with Tardi’s usual obsessive visual research, gives it a uniquely personal, authentic quality. Tardi’s adaptation is a cracking good detective yarn and a milestone in comics history.

Tart, Charles T. (1990). Altered States of Consciousness
. San Francisco, Harper.

Tatar, Maria, editor and translator (2002). The Annotated Classic Fairy Tales
. New York, W.W. Norton.
Tatar presents fresh and appealing translations of 26 traditional stories (primarily European), accompanied by engrossing annotations placed attractively in the wide margins of the large-sized pages. In clear, accessible prose, she links the tales to their original oral traditions and cultural contexts, and discusses the varied interpretations imposed by critics over time and across philosophical and psychological perspectives. Hundreds of high-quality, color reproductions of period illustrations illuminate and enhance Tatar's cogent remarks about the power of illustrators to influence and comment on a story through visual interpretation. The supplemental sections are as fascinating as the main material: biographies of authors, collectors, and illustrators; variant texts of Little Red Riding Hood and The Three Bears; the illustrations of Walter Crane and George Cruikshank; and an extensive bibliography.

Taylor, Roger C. (1993). Knowing the Ropes: A Sailor's Guide to Selecting, Rigging, and Handling Lines Abroad
. Camden, Me., International Marine.
Large, small, traditional, or contemporary, all boats share one thing in common: rope. Learning how to deal with the gnarly stuff is the major prerequisite for graceful boat handling. In Knowing the Ropes, Roger Taylor lends his lifetime of seagoing experience to boaters of all skill levels, describing--with the help of Kathy Bray's drawings--every aspect of ropework aboard: how to choose it, use it, care for it, knot it, coil it, whip it, marry it, haul on it, and reef and lash with it. You learn how to control sails, tow a dinghy, handle the anchor, move heavy cargo, and dock under any conditions. You learn the ropes.

Tegmark, Max (2017). Life 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence
. New York, Alfred A. Knopf.
What jobs should be automated? How should our legal systems handle autonomous systems? How likely is the emergence of suprahuman intelligence? A.I. is the future of science, technology, and business--and there is no person better qualified or situated to explore that future than Max Tegmark. What has A.I. brought us? Where will it lead us? The story of A.I. is the story of intelligence--of life processes as they evolve from bacteria (1.0) to humans (2.0), where life processes define their own software, to technology (3.0), where life processes design both their hardware and software. We know that A.I. is transforming work, laws, and weapons, as well as the dark side of computing (hacking and viral sabotage), raising questions that we all need to address: What jobs should be automated? How should our legal systems handle autonomous systems? How likely is the emergence of suprahuman intelligence? Is it possible to control suprahuman intelligence? How do we ensure that the uses of A.I. remain beneficial? These are the issues at the heart of this book and its unique perspective, which seeks a ground apart from techno-skepticism and digital utopia.

Teitelboim, Volodia (1991). Neruda: An Intimate Biography
. Austin, University of Texas Press.
The author, a Chilean novelist and politician who was a confidant of Pablo Neruda (1904-1973) for 40 years, rescues the poet from the pedestal of myth in this sweepingly lyrical, highly personal biography. We follow Neruda through his successive incarnations as greenhorn from Chile's southern frontier to ambitious but starving bohemian, agonized bureaucrat, traveler, diplomat, "resident on earth" in Southeast Asia, exile and famous expatriate in Paris. His story includes such stranger-than-fiction episodes as the murder of his close friend Federico Garcia Lorca, which galvanized Neruda's diehard communism; bigamy accusations filed by his first wife, coached by politicians trying to discredit him; and his clandestine exit from Chile in 1948, when he narrowly avoided arrest. Teitelboim skillfully links the creative artist to the public figure by interweaving beautifully translated verses by Neruda with the main narrative.

Temple, Michael, editor; James S. Williams,editor; et al. (2004). For Ever Godard
. London, Black Dog.
For over 50 years now, Jean-Luc Godard's work in cinema and video has innovated, provoked and inspired. Since the completion in 1998 of Histoire(s) du cinema, Godard has featured strongly in debates about audiovisual art and culture, especially regarding questions of historical memory, technological change, and the future of cinema in all its forms. This historical moment provides the perfect opportunity for a critical reassessment and redefinition of Godard's entire corpus and its key role within contemporary culture. With 22 lavishly illustrated chapters, as well as a photo essay and visual filmography, For Ever Godard aims to do critical justice to the full sweep of Godard's artistic interests and preoccupations. The volume presents material by scholars and practitioners from film and media studies, art history, musicology, philosophy and aesthetics, museum studies, French studies, European history, cultural studies, and feminism and gender studies. As an important marker of current methodologies, research and practice across these different disciplinary areas, For Ever Godard is an invaluable resource and of major importance to current discourses and debates on cinema and visual culture.

Teresa (1976). The Collected Works of St. Teresa of Avila
. Washington, Institute of Carmelite Studies.
Teresa de Ahumada was born in Avila to a prosperous but not aristocratic family, on her father's side a family of conversos (converts from Judaism to Christianity). When Teresa was 13, her mother died. In 1535, she entered the Carmelite Monastery of the Incarnation, in Avila, where she took vows two years later, as Teresa of Jesus.

Life at the Incarnation was by no means decadent, but the original Carmelite ideal of enclosure was impossible to maintain: there were too many nuns and the monastery was too poor. Visitors had to be welcomed because benefactors were needed; the nuns had to leave to make home visits in order to get medical care, and sometimes even for food. Teresa left three times: to get treatment for an illness, to care for her father when he was dying, to make a pilgrimage to a Spanish shrine. When she was at the monastery, she, like the others, met frequently with visitors.

When Teresa was 40, she began to have visionary experiences; after several years of these, she started to think of a new monastery in which the original Carmelite ideal could be followed. She began to discuss her idea with others, and, at the instruction of her confessor, she began to write about her spiritual life and how it had led her to a goal of reform.

In 1562, Teresa founded her first monastery, St. Joseph, in Avila, and completed Libro de la vida (Book of the life). At 47, she thought she would spend the rest of her life at St. Joseph and write no more. She was wrong: for the next 20 years, she traveled throughout Spain, establishing foundations both for nuns and for friars, and writing.

As the monasteries got farther apart, Teresa began to write down those spiritual directions that she would have given orally if all of her nuns were in one place. She wrote Camino de perfeccion (Way of perfection) in about 1566, to tell the nuns how to reach their goal; she wrote Castillo interior/ Las moradas (Interior castle/ The mansions) by 1580, to tell them about contemplative prayer; she wrote Las Fundaciones (Foundations) from 1573 to 1582, so they would remember the early history of their order. She also wrote for her nuns meditations, prayers, and hymns. To them, as well as to Carmelite friars and to the clerics and laity who were her benefactors, she wrote thousands of letters; of these, over 450 are extant.

Because she was a visionary and a reformer during the time of the Inquisition, all of these writings were carefully read by others (as they had surely been carefully written by Teresa). The result was that, even in her lifetime, her work became known far beyond the world of her monasteries.

Teresa and Kieran Kavanaugh (2001). The Collected Letters of St. Teresa of Avila
. Washington, D.C., ICS Publications.
This first translated volume of Teresa of Avila's letters is a very welcome addition to Fr. Kieran Kavanaugh's project of making the saint's writings available to English-speaking readers. Before the appearance of The Collected Letters of St. Teresa of Avila, little of her correspondence could be read in English. Kavanaugh's publication of 224 letters should affect future studies of Teresa and her order. His translations are based on Spanish critical editions of Teresa's work by Silverio de Santa Teresa and by the pair Efren de la Madre de Dios and Otger Steggink. They also benefit from Kavanaugh's consultation of letters in important manuscript collections.

The translator's commentaries on the letters are no small part of this excellent volume. He dedicates his introduction to the circumstances in which the documents were produced. He remarks on the saint's uses of her letters; on the enormous volume of her correspondence, much of which is now lost; on the hazards of the sixteenth-century Spanish postal system, which impelled her to write multiple letters, sending them by different kinds of couriers when she wanted to be certain that a letter got through; on the writing materials she used; and on her habits of addressing recipients.

Kavanaugh also provides readers unfamiliar with the complicated political landscape of sixteenth-century Spain much aid in making sense of what they are reading. Each translated letter is preceded by a summary of its content and a brief identification of the letter's recipient. Footnotes supply detail about individuals or groups to whom Teresa refers. They also cross-reference other letters, give outcomes to mentioned events and provide keys to code names that Teresa began to use with several of her correspondents. Kavanaugh completes his volume with fuller biographical sketches of those to whom Teresa wrote. Thus Teresa's crisscrossing network of relationships with members of her order, with her family and with a large number of supporters, confessors, advisors and critics outside her order begins to be visible.

Terkel, Studs (2003). Hope Dies Last: Keeping the Faith in Difficult Times
. New York, New Press: Distributed by W.W. Norton.
While American military forces seek to defeat an enemy that has no nation and American citizens ponder a future inextricably linked to the threat of terrorism, legendary writer Studs Terkel steps forward with a remarkable volume of oral histories that sheds new light on fighting for a just cause in uncertain times. As the title of Hope Dies Last suggests, Terkel's interviews all deal with the notion of finding hope in difficult times and holding on to that hope (of a better job, a better life, justice, peace) despite often overwhelming odds. Terkel draws his subjects from an incredibly broad range of backgrounds: pardoned Illinois death row inmate Leroy Orange discusses the events of his life, 94-year-old famed economist John Kenneth Galbraith talks about Enron, undocumented Guatemalans tell of trying to merely survive in modern America. While each testimonial is compelling in its own way, they combine to form a mosaic of human tenacity. Often, as in the case of 1960s civil rights activists, the subjects' ideas are accepted in the long run, for others, including a resident of Chicago's Cabrini Green housing project, the struggle is only just beginning. Terkel, 91 years old at the time of this book's publication, draws from a wealth of human experience but is spry enough to take on new causes and skillfully profile youthful activists with emerging causes. And Hope Dies Last is still a Studs Terkel book, full of the Pulitzer Prize-winning author's brand of blue-collar, rabble-rousing, union-card-waving brand of broad shouldered Chicago liberalism that makes the current wave of political writers seem a bit green and petty by comparison. For all of their success in selling books that accuse one another of being liars and idiots, those writers would do well to get out and meet even a few of the people that Studs Terkel has been talking to for years. - John Moe

Terkel, Studs (2005). And They All Sang: Adventures of an Eclectic Disc Jockey
. New York, New Press.
Studs Terkel--Pulitzer Prize-winning author, oral historian, radio personality, raconteur, and humanitarian--has grappled with life's tough predicaments (poverty, war, prejudice, injustice, and death) in vital conversations with both regular folks and people in the public eye. But as much as Terkel has been a clarion champion of human rights and peace, he has also been an ardent and expert celebrator of the arts. He gathered his favorite conversations with theater and film luminaries in The Spectator (1999), and now turns to his first love, music, in this zestful and moving collection of his revelatory dialogues with musicians, singers, composers, and impresarios. Terkel converses intensely with stars from the classical world, including Marian Anderson, Ravi Shankar, and Leonard Bernstein. He conducts lively exchanges with jazz greats Louis Armstrong, Betty Carter, and Dizzy Gillespie, and considers the power of spirituals, blues, and folk music with Mahalia Jackson, Big Bill Broonzy, Pete Seeger, young hipster Bob Dylan, and a humble Janis Joplin. In each priceless give-and-take, Terkel captures the distinct personality of each artist and the spirit of his or her world-altering music. Terkel is like no other in his eloquence, humor, empathy, and generosity. - Donna Seaman

Terry, R. C. (1999). Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope
. Oxford; New York, Oxford University Press.
The author of forty-seven novels, plus travel books, biographies, essays, and critical works, Anthony Trollope (1815-1882) was the most prolific of the great Victorian writers. Now The Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope brings together thirty-six leading scholars who provide an accessible, authoritative, and wide-ranging reference work on this important literary figure.

Here, in more than 500 A-Z entries, readers will find a wealth of information on Trollope's life, his works, and the historical and social context in which he lived. Trollope's writing career spanned almost half a century and his circle of friends reads like a who's who of Victorian England--and it's all captured here. The contributors offer illuminating essays on Trollope's major works--including the famed Barsetshire Novels and Paliser Novels--as well as on the many lesser known but no less accomplished books. The volume also examines Trollope's personal life, offering fresh information on such well documented aspects as his work at the Post Office and his famous circle of friends. Moreover, the contributors provide the most recent findings on aspects of Trollope's career only recently addressed by scholars: his work as a biographer and journalist, the importance of his extensive travels abroad, and the astonishing reappraisal of his work over the last few decades. And the Companion includes a chronology of Trollope's life, a family tree, maps, a thematic overview, and an extensive bibliography.

Packed with information based on the most current research, this attractively illustrated volume provides an unparalleled guide to one of the great nineteenth-century writers. It belongs on the shelf of everyone who loves English literature.

Tevis, Walter S. (1999). The Man Who Fell to Earth
. New York, Ballantine Pub. Group.
"An utterly realistic novel about an alien human on Earth . . . Realistic enough to become a metaphor for something inside us all, some existential loneliness." - Norman Spinrad

Thackeray, William Makepeace (2011). Vanity Fair
. London, Four Corners Books.
The Four Corners Familiars series invites contemporary artists to illustrate and produce a new edition of a classic novel or short story. This magnificent edition of William Makepeace Thackeray's Vanity Fair (first published in 1847-48) is the sixth in this series, and is produced by the British artist Donald Urquhart. Urquhart's black-and-white drawing style and subject matter is perfectly suited to the themes of Vanity Fair, which follows the fortunes of its strong-minded and strong-willed anti-heroine Becky Sharp through the follies and hypocrisies of early nineteenth-century British society. Urquhart's drawings, inspired by the fashions and iconography of 1930s Hollywood, focus exclusively on Becky Sharp. "I wanted to sideline all the secondary characters," says Urquhart. The novel is newly typeset in Perpetua and Felicity, typefaces designed by Eric Gill.

Thau, Annette (2011). The Bond Book: Everything Investors Need to Know About Treasuries, Municipals, Gnmas, Corporates, Zeros, Bond Funds, Money Market Funds, and More
. New York, McGraw-Hill.
The financial crisis of 2008 causedmajor disruptions to every sector of the bond market,but Treasuries have since experienced major rallies. This third edition discusses the lessons of the crisis, as well as the risks and opportunities it created. Providing up-to-date information available for making the best bond investing decisions, this edition explains how to assess risks and opportunities in this sector, buy treasuries without paying a commission, decide whether to purchase bond funds or individual bonds, and choose among various high-yield savings bonds.

Theen, Rolf H. W. (1973). Lenin: Genesis and Development of a Revolutionary
. Philadelphia, Lippincott.

Theroux, Paul (2003). Dark Star Safari: Overland from Cairo to Cape Town
. Boston, Houghton Mifflin.
"You'll have a terrible time," one diplomat tells Theroux upon discovering the prolific writer's plans to hitch a ride hundreds of miles along a desolate road to Nairobi instead of taking a plane. "You'll have some great stuff for your book." That seems to be the strategy for Theroux's extended "experience of vanishing" into the African continent, where disparate incidents reveal Theroux as well as the people he meets. At times, he goes out of his way to satisfy some perverse curmudgeonly desire to pick theological disputes with Christian missionaries. But his encounters with the natives, aid workers and occasional tourists make for rollicking entertainment, even as they offer a sobering look at the social and political chaos in which much of Africa finds itself. Theroux occasionally strays into theorizing about the underlying causes for the conditions he finds, but his cogent insights are well integrated. He doesn't shy away from the literary aspects of his tale, either, frequently invoking Conrad and Rimbaud, and dropping in at the homes of Naguib Mahfouz and Nadine Gordimer at the beginning and end of his trip. He also returns to many of the places where he lived and worked as a Peace Corps volunteer and teacher in the 1960s, locations that have cropped up in earlier novels. These visits fuel the book's ongoing obsession with his approaching 60th birthday and his insistence that he isn't old yet. As a travel guide, Theroux can both rankle and beguile, but after reading this marvelous report, readers will probably agree with the priest who observes, "Wonderful people. Terrible government. The African story."

Theroux, Paul (1995). The Great Railway Bazaar: By Train through Asiav
. New York, Penguin Books.
Fired by a fascination with trains that stemmed from childhood, Paul Theroux set out one day with the intention of boarding every train that chugged into view from Victoria Station in London to Tokyo Central, and to come back again via the Trans-Siberian Express.

Theroux, Paul (1992). The Happy Isles of Oceania: Paddling the Pacific
. New York, G.P. Putnam's Sons.
Renowned travel writer and novelist Paul Theroux has been many places in his life and tried almost everything. But this trip in and around the lands of the Pacific may be his boldest, most fascinating yet. From New Zealand's rain forests, to crocodile-infested New Guinea, over isolated atolls, through dirty harbors, daring weather and coastlines, he travels by Kayak wherever the winds take him--and what he discovers is the world to explore and try to understand.

Theroux, Paul (1984). The Kingdom by the Sea: A Journey around the Coast of Great Britain
. London; New York, Penguin Books.
After eleven years living as an American in London, Paul Theroux set out to travel clockwise round the coast and find out what Britain and the British are really like.

Theroux, Paul (1982). The Mosquito Coast
. London; New York, Penguin Books.
The paranoid and brilliant inventor Allie Fox takes his family to live in the Honduran jungle, determined to build a civilization better than the one they've left. Fleeing from an America he sees mired in materialism and conformity, he hopes to rediscover a purer life. But his utopian experiment takes a dark turn when his obsessions lead the family toward unimaginable dangers.

Theroux, Paul (1996). My Other Life
. Boston, Houghton Mifflin.
Theroux's latest novel is a thoroughly involving tour de force rendered in a technique reminiscent of British writer Christopher Isherwood--Theroux not only uses himself as the main character but actually calls himself by his real name. Although technically fiction, the book reads like autobiography; in the end, readers won't care which it is. Under any definition, it's the delectable story of a writer's progress; in form, it's a cycle of stories about the most formative influences in Theroux's journey through the artistic life: his strange uncle Hal, who lent considerable color to his boyhood; the individuals he encountered while teaching English in an African leper colony; the people he met raising his family in Singapore; and those he got to know as his writing career burgeoned while living in London (including the queen, who was the guest of honor at a dinner party he attended). Theroux paints, in one rich sentence-stroke after another, a polychromatic picture that will thrill his legion of fans.

Theroux, Paul (1997). The Old Patagonian Express: By Train through the Americas
. Boston, Houghton Mifflin.
Starting with a rush-hour subway ride to South Station in Boston to catch the Lake Shore Limited to Chicago, Theroux winds up on the poky, wandering Old Patagonian Express steam engine, which comes to a halt in a desolate land of cracked hills and thorn bushes. But with Theroux the view along the way is what matters: the monologuing Mr. Thornberry in Costa Rica, the bogus priest of Cali, and the blind Jorge Luis Borges, who delights in having Theroux read Robert Louis Stevenson to him.

Theroux, Paul (1995). The Pillars of Hercules: A Grand Tour of the Mediterranean
. New York, G.P. Putnam's Sons.
Theroux spent a year and a half traveling the shores of the Mediterranean, from Calpe (the Rock of Gibraltar) to Abila (Jebel Musa in Morocco), the twin pillars of Hercules. He insists there is a difference between the acquisitive, entertainment-seeking tourist and the traveler. In Gibraltar, he quotes the Spanish writer, Pio Baroja, "Parece que busco algo; pero no busco nada" [It may look as if I am seeking something; but I am seeking nothing]. Traveling with Theroux is almost pure adventure because he covets his experiences and guards against commitments that could taint them, like Port in The Sheltering Sky. Theroux's ability to express those experiences, stubbornly gained, is uncanny. The narrative is full of tiny stories, bold encounters with others, and reflections on historical events as well as the Mediterranean writings of Hemingway, Lawrence Durrell, T. E. Lawrence, Kazantzakis, and others as our intrepid adventurer passes through Gibraltar, Zadar in Croatia, Albania, Istanbul, and on through the Levant. From Alexandria, he travels to Cairo and visits Naguib Mahfouz in a hospital, two weeks after an Abdulrahman apostle attacked him. And then, in Morocco, we visit Paul Bowles in his apartment.

Theroux, Paul (1989). Riding the Iron Rooster: By Train through China
. New York, Ivy Books.
Theroux (The Old Patagonian Express, The Great Railway Bazaar) spent a year exploring China by train, and his impressions about what has and has not changed in the country, as gathered in hundreds of conversations with Chinese citizens, make up a large portion of the book. The Cultural Revolution and the vandalism of the Red Guards have left scars on both the land and the people. Mao's death brought a collective sigh of relief from the population; reforms brought about under Deng Xiaoping have generally been welcomed. Still, this is not a political book. Whether describing his dealings with a rock-hard bureaucracy, musing over the Chinese flirtation with capitalismthey've "turned the free market into a flea market "or commenting on the process of traveling, Theroux conducts the reader through this enormous country with wisdom, humor and a crusty warmth. Along the way are anecdotes about classic Chinese pornography (forbidden to the citizenry, but all right for "foreign friends"); 35-below-zero weather; the Chinese penchant for restructuring nature; and the omnipresent thermos of hot water for making tea. The last chapter, "The Train to Tibet," deals with the extremes to which the Chinese have gone in their attempts to subjugate the Tibetan people. Theroux develops an understanding of China through his travels, but he falls in love with Tibet. As in his previous works, he gives the reader much to relish and think about.

Thesiger, Wilfred (1964). The Marsh Arabs
. New York, Dutton.
Wilfred Thesiger was already a distinguished explorer and traveller when he first visited the Iraqi marshes in October 1950. Using a Leica camera, he had documented his journeys between 1933 and 1938 in Ethiopia's Danakil country, northern Darfur and Tibesti in the French Sahara. A new exhibition seeks to chronicle his experiences in the marshes.

Thesiger travelled in 1950 and 1951 to Iraqi Kurdistan. At Jabal Sinjar, near Mosul, he photographed a wedding party of Yazidis, so-called devil worshippers, "with the men and women and children dancing round in a circle hand in hand ". Thesiger found travel in Kurdistan, however, too restricted. He longed to live again among Arabs, "to be more than a mere spectator ".

The Iraqi marshes covered a smaller area than Kurdistan, but it was a world complete in itself, populated by tribes among whom Thesiger felt at home."They lead an extraordinary life," he wrote, "in the heart of these great swamps of bamboos and bullrushes, living either on small islands or half-submerged platforms of accumulated buffalo dung and reeds."

From 1951 to 1958 he spent a large part of each year in the marshes. With four Marsh Arab youths as canoemen aboard a sleek 36ft tarada - reminiscent of a Venetian gondola - he roamed through the marshes, sleeping in barrel-vaulted mudhifs - guest houses - built of giant reeds.

He joined fishermen with tridents, spearing barbel."Each canoe," he observed, "had two occupants; one paddled, while the other stood in the bows and jabbed unceasingly in the weeds." Thesiger dispensed medicines and treated the Marsh Arabs' diseases, including dysentery, ulcers and yaws; sometimes the horrific wounds inflicted by wild boars. During seven years he won approval by shooting a thousand wild boar, as well as performing many hundreds of antiseptic circumcisions.

Illustrated with Thesiger's superb photographs, The Marsh Arabs was first published in 1964 and not only evoked the beautiful marsh landscapes, but immortalised tribes whose centuries-old way of life he had felt privileged to share. The Marsh Arabs' fate would mirror Thesiger's serial involvement with vanishing tribal societies. He wrote with prophetic understatement in February 1958: "I have a great affection for these people and only regret the changes which the next few years are likely to bring."

Thesiger, Wilfred (1984). Arabian Sands
. New York, Viking Press.
Wilifred Thesiger is perhaps the last, and certainly one of the greatest, of the British travellers among the Arabs. The narrative is vividly written, with a thousand little anecdotes and touches which bring back to any who have seen these countries every scene with the colour of real life' - Sir John Glubb, Sunday Times

Thesiger, Wilfred (1987). The Life of My Choice
. London, Collins.
Perhaps the last of the great romantic gentleman-explorers, Thesiger, author of Arabian Sands and The Marsh Arabs, here looks back on an extraordinary life. He was born in Abyssinia (Ethiopia) to British diplomatic parents who were friends of Emperor Haile Selassie. Thesiger remembers Addis Ababa, the capital, as a village with grass huts, no roads and colorful ceremonies. He attended Eton and Oxford, then returned to Africa for the first of many journeys, exploring the Awash River (home to the dreaded Danakil, whose warriors killed randomly to prove their manhood and collected their victims' genitals for trophies). As a district officer in the Sudan Political Service, Thesiger had further opportunities to travel in desert lands and meet nomadic tribes. During World War II, he served with Orde Wingate's troops, liberating Abyssinia from the Italians; later, he fought behind the lines in the Western Desert. In addition to superb adventure, Thesiger gives a fine portrait of the waning days of the British Empire in the Sudan and of the last revolution in Ethiopia. Photos.

Thesiger, Wilfred (2001). A Vanished World
. London, HarperCollins.
A stunning photographic record of cultures at the farthest edges of civilization by the world's greatest living explorer. Wilfred Thesiger's photography career started during a hunting expedition to Ethiopia at age twenty. Three years later he returned to explore the Awash River and photograph the ferocious Danakil, who were reputed to mutilate any traveler they encountered. In the Sudan he photographed the Muslim tribes in Northern Darfur, pagan Nuer in the Western Nile swamps, and magnificent Nuba wrestlers. The visual drama of Arabia's deserts was the backdrop to Thesiger's emergence as a master of the portrait. In that harsh environment he captures the striking faces of Bedu companions posing unselfconsciously for his camera. In contrast, tranquil images of reeds, lagoons, and waterways characterize his matchless portraits of the Marsh Arabs of Iraq, whose way of life has now completely disappeared. Subsequent journeys took him to remote areas of Kurdistan, Pakistan, and Afghanistan, and finally to northern Kenya, where he lived for many years. This book is the summation of a unique and magnificent career. Duotone photographs.

Thiong'o, Ngugi wa (2012). Weep Not, Child
. New York, Penguin Books.
Two brothers, Njoroge and Kamau, stand on a garbage heap and look into their futures: Njoroge is to attend school, while Kamau will train to be a carpenter. But this is Kenya, and the times are against them: In the forests, the Mau Mau is waging war against the white government, and the two brothers and their family need to decide where their loyalties lie. For the practical Kamau, the choice is simple, but for Njoroge the scholar, the dream of progress through learning is a hard one to give up.

The first East African novel published in English [1964], Weep Not, Child is a moving book about the effects of the infamous Mau Mau Uprising on the lives of ordinary men and women, and on one family in particular.

Thody, Philip Malcolm Waller (1992). Jean-Paul Sartre
. New York, St. Martin's Press.
During the 1940s and 1950s Sartre's ideas remained ambiguous, and existentialism became a favoured philosophy of the beatnik generation. Sartre's views were counterposed to those of Albert Camus in the popular imagination. In 1948, the Catholic Church placed his complete works on the Index of prohibited books. Most of his plays are richly symbolic and serve as a means of conveying his philosophy. The best-known, Huis-clos (No Exit), contains the famous line: "L'enfer, c'est les autres", usually translated as "Hell is other people".

Besides the obvious impact of Nausea, Sartre's major contribution to literature was the Roads to Freedom trilogy which charts the progression of how World War II affected Sartre's ideas. In this way, Roads to Freedom presents a less theoretical and more practical approach to existentialism. The first book in the trilogy, L'âge de raison (The Age of Reason) (1945), could easily be said to be the Sartre work with the broadest appeal.

Thomas, Dylan (1969). Adventures in the Skin Trade
. New York, New York, New Directions Publishing Corporation.
This collection was published posthumously in 1955. It comprises three short stories which were initially intended to be the opening chapters of a novel, and 20 short stories produced early in Thomas' career.

These individual stories represent a period in his prose writing during which he rejected conventional use of form and language and experimented with a style designed to echo the workings of the subconscious mind.

The first three stories were originally published together under the title Adventures In The Skin Trade, and were to have been developed into a semi-autobiographical novel. Thomas rejected the idea after criticism from his publishers, but he originally intended to write a sequence of events in which his main character reached a stage of maturity by shedding a series of metaphorical skins.

Thomas, Dylan and Daniel Jones (2003). The Poems of Dylan Thomas
. New York, New Directions.
The most complete edition of the works of one of the twentieth century's greatest poets.

This new, revised edition of The Poems of Dylan Thomas is based on the collection edited by Thomas's life-long friend and fellow poet, Daniel Jones, first published by New Directions in 1971. Jones started with the ninety poems Thomas selected for his Collected Poems in 1952 (at a time when the poet expected that many years of work still lay ahead of him) and, after exhaustive research and consideration, added one hundred previously finished, though uncollected, poems (including twenty-six juvenile works), and two unfinished poems, and arranged them all in chronological order of composition, creating the most complete edition of Thomas's poems ever published.

This revised edition contains all the original material and incorporates textual corrections. Also included are an Introduction and concise notes by Daniel Jones, a brief chronology of the poet's life, and a compact disc containing vintage recordings of Thomas reading eight of his poems in his famous "Welsh-singing" style, making this edition of The Poems of Dylan Thomas a truly remarkable collection. The most complete edition of the works of one of the twentieth century's greatest poets.

Thompson, E.P. (1994). Making History: Writings on History and Culture
. New York, New Press: Distributed by W.W. Norton.
The point of history, according to the late English historian Thompson, is to "reconstruct the forgotten norms, decode the obsolete rituals and detect the hidden gesture," and for him that meant social history. The chronicling of wars and the actions of the ruling class interested him much less than the customs, folklore, practices and popular culture of nations, above all England. He was drawn to the plight of women and of the common people, particularly to the English working class, which he attempted to rescue from "the condescension of posterity." In his view, history should be told from the bottom up rather than from the top down. But to dismiss him as a revisionist, left-wing historian would be unfair. He was too humane and multifaceted for that, and he found the theoretical arguments of Marxists boring, their concern with class tedious. Historical materialism and power relationships may not be the only lenses through which to view events. Whether he was reviewing the books of other historians such as Linda Colley or Herbert Gutman, or analyzing the contributions of Tom Maguire, Eleanor Marx, William Morris or Mary Wollstonecraft, Thompson wrote with a controlling integrity as well as great spirit. And he always delivered the long view, not pressing his nose "too close against the windowpane" but earnestly trying to stand back far enough to see the entire picture.

Thomas, Gillian (2016). Because of Sex: One Law, Ten Cases, and Fifty Years That Changed American Women's Lives at Work
. New York, St. Martin's Press.
Best known as a monumental achievement of the civil rights movement, the 1964 Civil Rights Act also revolutionized the lives of America's working women. Title VII of the law made it illegal to discriminate "because of sex." But that simple phrase didn't mean much until ordinary women began using the law to get justice on the job - and some took their fights all the way to the Supreme Court. Among them were Ida Phillips, denied an assembly line job because she had a preschool-age child; Kim Rawlinson, who fought to become a prison guard - a "man's job"; Mechelle Vinson, who brought a lawsuit for sexual abuse before "sexual harassment" even had a name; Ann Hopkins, denied partnership at a Big Eight accounting firm because the men in charge thought she needed "a course at charm school"; and most recently, Peggy Young, UPS truck driver, forced to take an unpaid leave while pregnant because she asked for a temporary reprieve from heavy lifting.

These unsung heroines' victories, and those of the other women profiled in Gillian Thomas' Because of Sex, dismantled a "Mad Men" world where women could only hope to play supporting roles; where sexual harassment was "just the way things are"; and where pregnancy meant getting a pink slip.

Thompson, E.P. (1964). The Making of the English Working Class
. New York, Pantheon Books.
"Thompson's book has been called controversial, but perhaps only because so many have forgotten how explosive England was during the Regency and the early reign of Victoria. Without any reservation, The Making of the English Working Class is the most important study of those days since the classic work of the Hammonds." - Commentary

Thompson, E.P. (2011). William Morris: Romantic to Revolutionary
. Oakland, CA, PM Press.
Two impressive figures, William Morris as subject and E.P. Thompson as author, are conjoined in this immense biographical-historical-critical study, and both of them have gained in stature since the first edition of the book was published. The book that was ignored in 1955 has meanwhile become something of an underground classic - almost impossible to locate in second-hand bookstores, pored over in libraries, required reading for anyone interested in Morris and, increasingly, for anyone interested in one of the most important of contemporary British historians. Thompson has the distinguishing characteristic of a great historian: he has transformed the nature of the past, it will never look the same again; and whoever works in the area of his concerns in the future must come to terms with what Thompson has written. So too with his study of William Morris. --Peter Stansky, The New York Times Book Review.

Thompson, Fred W.; Jon Bekken (2006). The Industrial Workers of the World: Its First One Hundred Years, 1905 through 2005
. Chicago, IL, Industrial Workers of World.
This is the official history of the IWW, "written by two Wobblies who lived through many of the struggles they chronicle", and published by IWW press. It's also the best general history. It has many truly striking black and white photos: police in San Diego using fire hoses on Wobblies in a foreshadowing of the civil rights movement, Joe Hill's funeral procession, Frank Little's mug shot, and the burned wreckage of more vigilante- or cop-attacked IWW meeting halls than you can count. Plus lots of reprints of old political cartoons. More importantly, this book covers the union's activity down to the present day.

Founded in 1905 in hopes of uniting the working class into 'One Big Union', the IWW promoted industrial organization at a time when craft unionism was the established pattern. The IWW welcomed all workers, regardless of ethnicity, race or gender when other unions boasted of their exclusionary policies. Its reliance on direct action on the job generated much of the strategy and tactics of the modern labor movement. Often referred to as the singing union, Wobblies wrote hundreds of labor songs and published millions of copies of their 'Little Red Songbook'. The IWW's theme song, Solidarity Forever, became the anthem of the entire American labor movement.

The IWW: Its First 100 Years is the most comprehensive history of the union ever published. Written by two Wobblies who lived through many of the struggles they chronicle, it documents the famous struggles such as the Lawrence and Paterson strikes, the fight for decent conditions in the Pacific Northwest timber fields, the IWW's pioneering organizing among harvest hands in the 1910s and 1920s, and the wartime repression that sent thousands of IWW members to jail. But it is the only general history to give substantive attention to the IWW's successful organizing of African-American and immigrant dock workers on the Philadelphia waterfront, the international union of seamen the IWW built from 1913 through the 1930s, smaller job actions through which the IWW, Wobbly successes organizing in manufacturing in the 1930s and 1940s, and the union's recent resurgence. Extensive source notes provide guidance to readers wishing to explore particular campaigns in more depth. There is no better history for the reader looking for an overview of the history of the Industrial Workers of the World, and for an understanding of its ideas and tactics. Includes nearly 60 photographs and illustrations, and brief forward from Utah Phillips.

Thompson, Heather Ann (2016). Blood in the Water: The Attica Prison Uprising of 1971 and Its Legacy
. New York, NY, Pantheon.
On September 9, 1971, nearly 1,300 prisoners took over the Attica Correctional Facility in upstate New York to protest years of mistreatment. Holding guards and civilian employees hostage, the prisoners negotiated with officials for improved conditions during the four long days and nights that followed. Drawing from more than a decade of extensive research, historian Heather Ann Thompson sheds new light on every aspect of the uprising and its legacy, giving voice to all those who took part in this forty-five-year fight for justice: prisoners, former hostages, families of the victims, lawyers and judges, and state officials and members of law enforcement. Blood in the Water is the searing and indelible account of one of the most important civil rights stories of the last century.

Thompson, Hunter S. (1999). Hell's Angels: A Strange and Terrible Saga
. New York, Modern Library.
Hunter S. Thompson's vivid account of his experiences with California's most no-torious motorcycle gang, the Hell's Angels. In the mid-1960s, Thompson spent almost two years living with the controversial Angels, cycling up and down the coast, reveling in the anarchic spirit of their clan, and, as befits their name, raising hell. His book successfully captures a singular moment in American history, when the biker lifestyle was first defined, and when such countercultural movements were electrifying and horrifying America. Thompson, the creator of Gonzo journalism, writes with his usual bravado, energy, and brutal honesty, and with a nuanced and incisive eye. As illuminating now as when originally published in 1967, Hell's Angels is a gripping portrait, and the best account we have of the truth behind an American legend.

Thompson, Jenny and Sherry Thompson (2018). The Kremlinologist: Llewellyn E. Thompson, America's Man in Cold War Moscow
. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press.
The Kremlinologist chronicles major events of the Cold War through the prism of the life of one of its top diplomats, Llewellyn Thompson. His life went from the wilds of the American West to the inner sanctums of the White House and the Kremlin. As the ambassador to Moscow, he became an important advisor to presidents and a key participant in major twentieth-century events, including the Cuban Missile Crisis and the Vietnam War. Yet, unlike his contemporaries McGeorge Bundy and George C. Marshall--who considered Thompson one of the most crucial actors in the Cold War and the "unsung hero" of the Cuban Missile Crisis--he has not been the subject of a major biography until now. Thompson's daughters Jenny Thompson Vukacic and Sherry Thompson set out to document their father's life as thoroughly as possible. Relying on primary sources and interviews, they received generous assistance from archivists, historians, and colleagues of their father. They also acquired documents and information from Russian archives, including the KGB archives. As family, they had unprecedented access to his FBI dossier, State Department personnel files, family archives, letters, diaries, speeches, and documents. Their original research brings new material to light including important information on the U-2, Kennan's containment policy, and Thompson's role in U.S. covert operations machinery. The book refutes historical misinterpretations of events in the Berlin Crisis, the Austrian State Treaty, and the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Thompson, Jim (1990). A Hell of a Woman
. New York, Vintage Books.
Young, beautiful, and fearfully abused, Mona was the kind of girl even a hard man like Dillon couldn't bring himself to use. But when Mona told him about the vicious aunt who had turned her into something little better than a prostitute--and about the money the old lady has stashed away--Dillon found it surprisingly easy to kill for her.

Thompson, Jim (1990). After Dark, My Sweet
. New York, Vintage Books.
William Collins is very handsome, very polite, and very friendly. His is also dangerous when aroused. Now Collins, a one-time boxer with a lethal "accident" in his past, has broken out of his fourth mental institution and met up with an affable con man and a highly arousing woman, whose plans for him include kidnapping, murder, and much, much worse.

Thompson, Jim (1990). The Getaway.
. New York, Vintage Books.
Doc McCoy knows everything there is to know about pulling off the perfect bank job. But there are some things he has forgotten--such as a partner who is not only treacherous but insane and a wife who is still an amateur. Worst of all, McCoy has forgotten that when the crime is big and bloody enough, there is no such thing as a clean getaway.

Thompson, Jim (1985). The Grifters.
. Berkeley, Creative Arts.
Roy Dillon seems too handsome and well-mannered to be a professional con man. Lilly Dillon looks too young--and loves Roy a little too intensely--to be taken for his mother. Moira Langtry is getting too old to keep on living off the kindness of male strangers. And Carol Roberg seems too innocent to be acquainted with suffering.

Thomson, David (1997). Beneath Mulholland: Thoughts on Hollywood and Its Ghosts
. New York, Knopf: Distributed by Random House.
David Thomson is at his incomparable best in this stunning collection of essays on Hollywood films--their stars and the illusions they create. He explores a sort of twilight zone where film actors and the characters they play become part of our reality, as living beings and as ghosts, residing on or buried beneath Mulholland Drive, or wandering among us.

Like all of Thomson's writing on the movies, Beneath Mulholland is rich in its understanding of Hollywood, laced with irony, thoroughly provocative and brilliantly creative. There is also a steady fascination with love, sex, death, voyeurism, money and glory, all the preoccupations of Los Angeles--or of that movie L.A. whose initials, Thomson says, stand for Lies Allowed.

He writes about James Stewart in Vertigo, Jack Nicholson in Chinatown, about Cary Grant ("Having fun, perched somewhere between skill and exhilaration, Grant is both the deft director of the circus and a kid in love with the show"), Greta Garbo ("She knows that she is a latent force that works in the minds of audiences she will never meet") and about stardom in general: "The star is adored but not liked: that is the consequence of a religious respect that enjoys no ordinary relations with the object of its desire."

Entering another dimension, we meet James Dean at age 50--he survived the car crash--and discover how his career developed (and how it affected Paul Newman's). We see what happened to Tony Manero (John Travolta) after Saturday Night Fever ended and how Susie Diamond (Michelle Pfeiffer) moved on when The Fabulous Baker Boys was over. We are given a rollicking but instructive version of how Sony learned to live and die in Hollywood. We learn the 20 Things People Like to Forget About Hollywood ("All People in Hollywood Are Dysfunctional" is the first). And there is insight into How People Die in Movies--the empire of bang bang.

Thomson, David (2002). The New Biographical Dictionary of Film
. New York, Alfred A. Knopf.
For twenty-five years, David Thomson's Biographical Dictionary of Film has been not merely "the finest reference book ever written about movies" (Graham Fuller, Interview), not merely the "desert island book" of art critic David Sylvester, not merely "a great, crazy masterpiece" (Geoff Dyer, The Guardian), but also "fiendishly seductive" (Greil Marcus, Rolling Stone).

Now it returns, with its old entries updated and 300 new ones - from Luc Besson to Reese Witherspoon - making more than 1300 in all, some of them just a pungent paragraph, some of them several thousand words long. In addition to the new "musts," Thomson has added key figures from film history - lively anatomies of Graham Greene, Eddie Cantor, Pauline Kael, Abbott and Costello, Noël Coward, Hoagy Carmichael, Dorothy Gish, Rin Tin Tin, and more.

Here is a great, rare book, one that encompasses the chaos of art, entertainment, money, vulgarity, and nonsense that we call the movies. Personal, opinionated, funny, daring, provocative, and passionate, it is the one book that every filmmaker and film buff must own. Time Out named it one of the ten best books of the 1990s. Gavin Lambert recognized it as "a work of imagination in its own right." Now better than ever - a masterwork by the man playwright David Hare called "the most stimulating and thoughtful film critic now writing."

Thomson, James (1909). The City of Dreadful Night, and Other Poems
. Portland, Me., T. B. Mosher.
James "B.V" (stands for Bysshe Vanolis, a pseudonym he sometimes adopted) Thomson composed this long poem while wandering the streets of London, tormented by insomnia and what he called "melencholia," what we would probably call clinical depression.

His portrait of his mental state also became a portrait of an industrial society, and the vanity and pointlessness of its various sorts of activity and effort. His City of Dreadful Night, a true city of despair, held up a dark mirror to the urban England of his day, filled with faithless churches, empty and ultimately unrewarding activity, and the despair of grinding poverty.

In an age so filled with self-improvement twaddle and the cult of positive thinking, such a poem actually seems like a breath of fresh air. It ends with a splendid portrait of Durer's Melencolia.

Thoreau, Henry David (1985). A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers; Walden, or, Life in the Woods; the Maine Woods; Cape Cod
. New York, N.Y., Literary Classics of the United States: Distributed to the trade in the U.S. and Canada by Viking Press.
Henry David Thoreau wrote four full-length works, collected here for the first time in a single volume. Subtly interweaving natural observation, personal experience, and historical lore, they reveal his brilliance not only as a writer, but as a naturalist, scholar, historian, poet, and philosopher. "A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers" is based on a boat trip taken with his brother from Concord, Massachusetts to Concord, New Hampshire. "Walden," one of America's great books, is at once a personal declaration of independence, social experiment, voyage of spiritual discovery, manual of self-reliance, and masterpiece of style. "The Maine Woods" and "Cape Cod" portray landscapes changing irreversibly even as he wrote. The first combines close observation of the unexplored Maine wilderness with a far-sighted plea for conservation; the second is a brilliant and unsentimental account of survival on a barren peninsula in the face of hostile elements, historical change, and natural decay.

Thoreau, Henry David (2001). Collected Essays and Poems
. New York, Library of America: Distributed to the trade in the U.S. by Penguin Putnam.
America's greatest nature writer and a political thinker of worldwide impact, Henry David Thoreau's remarkable essays reflect his speculative and probing cast of mind. In his poems, he gave voice to his private sentiments and spiritual aspirations in the plain style of New England speech. Now, The Library of America brings together these indispensable works in one authoritative volume.

Spanning his entire career, the 27 essays gathered here vary in style from the ambling rhythm of "Natural History of Massachusetts" and "A Winter Walk" to the concentrated moral outrage of "Slavery in Massachusetts" and "A Plea for Captain John Brown." Included are "Civil Disobedience," Thoreau's great exploration of the conflict between individual conscience and state power that continues to influence political thinkers and activists; "Walking," a meditation on wildness and civilization; and "Life Without Principle," a passionate critique of American materialism and conformity. Also here are literary essays, including pieces on Homer, Chaucer, and Carlyle; the travel essay "A Yankee in Canada"; the three speeches in defense of John Brown; and essays such as "Autumnal Tints," "Wild Fruits," and "Huckleberries" that explore natural phenomena around Concord.

Seven poems are published here for the first time, and others are presented in new, previously unpublished versions based on Thoreau's manuscripts.

Thurber, James (1996). Writings and Drawings
. New York, N.Y., Literary Classics of the United States.
This work represents each decade of Thurber's writing career, from the slight New Yorker sketches of the 1920s to the irreverently affectionate portrait of that magazine's founder, The Years with Ross, of the late 1950s. Keillor's selection of Thurber's oeuvre is both the most generous and the most judicious volume available. Known largely for The Secret Life of Walter Mitty (1939), which dramatizes the battle of the sexes and the male animal's ineptitude in the face of modern technology, Thurber was an Algonquin stylist with a wide range of talents. These talents are effectively displayed here in the self-deprecating reminiscences of his eccentric Columbus, Ohio, family; beast fables with a cutting edge; and almost 500 inimitable line drawings.

Thucydides, Thomas Hobbes, et al. (1989). The Peloponnesian War
. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
Thucydides' The Peloponnesian War mixes tragedy and intellection, profound emotion and painstaking analysis. Steven Lattimore has met the most daunting challenge to a translator of Thucydides, which is to provide a sense of this combination. Written in clear American English that never oversimplifies the original, this translation will be useful both to the novice intent on learning 'what happened' and to the returning reader seeking to savor high points like the Funeral Speech of Pericles.

Tierney, Patrick (2000). Darkness in El Dorado: How Scientists and Journalists Devastated the Amazon
. New York, Norton.
This book, already nominated for a National Book Award, details the tragic encounter between an archaic Amazon people, the Yanomami, and what's depicted as a culturally toxic conglomeration of ruthless social scientists, rapacious financial interests, amoral governments and pop-culture journalists. Tierney (The Highest Altar) argues for an end to the arrogant exploitation of peoples outside of the classical Eurasian traditions. Copiously annotated and well documented, the work is the culmination of a decade-long study of what Tierney claims is false science; along the way, he exposes the dark side of some famous social-biologists. These self-promotors, he argues, cooked statistics and misrepresented behavior among the people they studied in order to support their presuppositions. Tierney explains how the Yanomami's desire for steel implements in their Paleolithic world of hunting, gathering, fishing and rudimentary farming led to exploitation by the observers, who wielded the promise of tools and modern gadgetry to manipulate the native population. Bribing the Indians enabled some scientists, with preconceived genetic theories of violence and dominance, to induce the Yanomami to act in ways antithetical to their own ancient customs. In the end, these flawed studies encouraged and justified mistreatment of this tribal people by Brazilian, Venezuelan and U.S. government agencies and the mining industry. Tierney's indictment exposes the worst depredations of modern cultural imperialism. Photographs and charts. - Publishers Weekly

Tigar, Michael E. (2000). Law and the Rise of Capitalism
. New York, Monthly Review Press.
Against a backdrop of 700 years of bourgeosis struggle, eminent lawyer and educator, Michael E. Tigar, develops a Marxist theory of law and jurisprudence based upon the Western experience.

Tilly, Charles (1986). The Contentious French
. Cambridge, Mass., Belknap Press.
Through meticulous analysis of five representative regions of France, Tilly attempts to show how the development of capitalism and the consolidation of national government stimulated and defined popular expressions of contention during the past 400 years. His lengthy archival explorations have yielded a rich harvest; the discerning reader will clearly appreciate the restlessness of the masses and their efforts to cope with change and modernity. Tilly's skillful use of history, sociology, political science, and demographics is evident as he resurrects the grain seizures, riots, and attacks on tax officials which gradually gave way to strikes, political rallies, and mass demonstrations.

Tindall, George Brown and David E. Shi (2004). America: A Narrative History
. New York, Norton.
With nearly a million copies sold over five editions, America: A Narrative History is distinguished by its clear, colorful narrative and balanced incorporation of political history with social, cultural, and economic events. Retaining these classic strengths, the Sixth Edition introduces a new theme - the role of work in American life - and explores its social, political, and cultural dimensions.

Tindall, William York (1973). A Reader's Guide to Dylan Thomas
. New York, Octagon Books.
A friend of Dylan Thomas and one of the leading esperts on modern writing, William York Tendall brings enormous erudition and high literary sensitivity to his poem-by-poem analysis of the great Welsh poet's verse.

Tobocman, Seth, et al. (2016). Len, a Lawyer in History
. Chico, Calif., AK Press.
For half a century, criminal defense lawyer Leonard Weinglass defended a who's who of the twentieth-century left in some of America's most spectacular trials. "The typical call I get is one that starts by saying, ‘You're the fifth attorney we've called,'" he once said. "Then I get interested." Those calls came from the likes of the SDS, the Chicago Seven, Daniel Ellsberg, Abbie Hoffman, and Mumia Abu-Jamal, among many others. For decades illlustrator Seth Tobocman has been working within the comics vernacular to create a unique language, and with Len he's at the top of his game, brilliantly applying himself not only with pencil and ink on paper, but as an active participant in the same political struggles that Len Weinglass valiantly dedicated his life to solving.

Tocqueville, Alexis de, Harvey Claflin Mansfield, et al. (2000). Democracy in America
. Translated, Edited, and with an Introduction by Harvey C. Mansfield and Delba Winthrop. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
When it was first published in 2000, Harvey Mansfield and Delba Winthrop's new translation of Democracy in America was lauded in all quarters as the finest and most definitive edition of Tocqueville's classic - complete with the most faithful and readable translation to date, impeccable annotations of unfamiliar references, and a masterful introduction placing the work and its author in the broader contexts of political philosophy and statesmanship. Mansfield and Winthrop's astonishing efforts have not only captured the elegance, subtlety, and profundity of Tocqueville's original, but also give us some sense of how very essential this masterpiece continues to be.

Toer, Pramoedya Ananta (1993). Child of All Nations
. New York, W. Morrow.
Toer delivers the second volume of his Buru Tetralogy with devastating effect. Continuing with the characters of This Earth of Mankind (1991), the story focuses on Minke, a young, European-schooled Javanese writer--an "educated native "--fighting for his rights in the Dutch East Indies at the turn of the century. Minke is in the process of recovering from the death of his wife, who was murdered by Dutch colonials, and trying to assert his voice and the voices of his people. Everywhere he turns, the colonial forces and the all-powerful sugar companies build walls against his words. He struggles over which language to write in and which plights to address--there are so many languages, so many castes, and so many problems. In the end, Minke and his beloved mother-in-law are still trapped within their society but have gained a greater understanding of the possibilities of independence and stronger voices with which to shout. Ironically, this novel--and all of Toer's work--is banned in his native Malaysia.

Toer, Pramoedya Ananta (1994). Footsteps
. New York, W. Morrow.
A vibrant portrait of a people coalescing into nationhood, this third volume of a projected tetralogy (the Buru Quartet) by Indonesian novelist Pramoedya continues the story begun in Child of All Nations and This Earth of Mankind. The protagonist is again expelled Javanese medical student Minke, who now becomes a journalist, then a grass-roots political organizer and eventually a crusading publisher of the archipelago's first native-owned daily newspaper. Set in the period 1901 to 1912, this novel measures Minke's dream of a unified, multiethnic Indonesia free of Dutch rule, against the harsh realities of colonial occupation. The picture is bleak: oppression, exploitation, slavery and brutal subjugation of the Netherlands Indies' indigenous people by the Dutch military, working in concert with a local ruling elite. Inspired by the life of Indonesian journalist Tirto Adi Suryo, the story is rich in human drama and history. Minke corresponds with Ter Haar, a roving liberal Dutch journalist; battles his old nemesis, racist terrorist Robert Suurho; and matures emotionally through two dramatic marriages. Lane's introduction will help readers new to these books to plunge into the engrossing narrative.

Toer, Pramoedya Ananta (1996). House of Glass: A Novel
. New York, W. Morrow and Co.
Police commissioner Tuan Pangemanann, narrator of this concluding volume to Pramoedya's extraordinary tetralogy set in colonial Indonesia, is a Sorbonne-educated reactionary, a consummate hypocrite, a cultivated monster, a sadist with pangs of conscience. Recognizing the rottenness of the colonial administration, he greatly admires Minke, crusading newspaper editor and nationalist fighter against Dutch imperialism, considering him a man of principle. Yet, as an obedient tool of the Netherlands Indies' ruling elite in the period from 1912 through the end of WWI, Pangemanann feels duty-bound to crush Minke and the native movement he represents, whether by arrest, torture or counterinsurgency terrorism. The first three volumes of Pramoedya's quartet (This Earth of Mankind; Child of All Nations; Footsteps) - written during the author's 14-year banishment, 1965-1979, to the prison island of Buru - were narrated by Minke, a progressive witness of world events. Here, by filtering the anti-colonialist struggle through Pangemanann's ambivalent, warped perspective, Pramoedya spikes his epic saga with slyly modernist irony, creating a work that is as subversive today as when it was written.

Tohill, Cathal and Pete Tombs (1995). Immoral Tales: European Sex & Horror Movies, 1956-1984
. New York, St. Martin's Griffin.
Not so much a movie guide as an insightful critical overview of European sex/horror films (there is much overlap between the two genres), this book is elegantly organized into a sequence of essays proceeding from general themes (the history of horrific art, the surgical metaphor), to regional styles (Italian, German, French, Spanish), to individual directors (Jesus Franco, Jean Rollin, José Larraz, José Bénazéraf, Walerian Borowczyk, Alain Robbe-Grillet). The writing is intelligent, engaging, and packed with fascinating historical and technical details. The book includes plenty of photos and poster art (including many in color), a useful appendix covering miscellaneous actors and directors, an index, and a bibliography. Immoral Tales was a finalist for the 1995 Bram Stoker Award in Nonfiction.

Tolkien, J. R. R. (2004). The Lord of the Rings
. Boston, Houghton Mifflin.
The Fellowship of the Ring, part one of J.R.R. Tolkien's epic masterpiece, first reached these shores on October 21, 1954, arriving, as C. S. Lewis proclaimed, "like lightning from a clear sky." Fifty years and nearly one hundred million American readers later comes a beautiful new one-volume collector's edition. With a text fully corrected under the supervision of Christopher Tolkien to meet the author's exacting wishes, two large-format fold-out maps, a ribbon placemarker, gilded page edges, a color insert depicting Tolkien's own paintings of the Book of Mazarbul and exceptionally elegant and sturdy overall packaging housed within an attractive slipcase.

Tolkien, J. R. R., Christopher Tolkien, et al. (2004). The Silmarillion
. Boston, Houghton Mifflin. Berkeley, Creative Arts.
Those interested in J.R.R. Tolkien's Middle Earth should not be without this grand volume that tells the tragic tale of the struggle for control of the Silmarils, a struggle that would determine the history of the world long before the War of the Ring.

Tolley, A. Trevor (1976). The Poetry of the Thirties
. New York, St. Martin's Press.

Tolstoy, Leo, Leonard J. Kent, et al. (2000). Anna Karenina
. New York, Modern Library.
Novel by Leo Tolstoy, published in installments between 1875 and 1877 and considered one of the pinnacles of world literature. The narrative centers on the adulterous affair between Anna, wife of Aleksey Karenin, and Count Vronsky, a young bachelor. Karenin's discovery of the liaison arouses only his concern for his own public image. Anna promises discretion for the sake of her husband and young son but eventually becomes pregnant by Vronsky. After the child is born, Anna and the child accompany Vronsky first to Italy, then to his Russian estate. She begins making furtive trips to see her older child and grows increasingly bitter toward Vronsky, eventually regarding him as unfaithful. In desperation she goes to the train station, purchases a ticket, and then impulsively throws herself in front of the incoming train. A parallel love story, involving the difficult courtship and fulfilling marriage of Kitty and Levin, provides rich counterpoint to the tragedy and is thought to reflect Tolstoy's own marital experience. There is an inevitability about the tragic fate that hangs over the adulterous love of Anna and Vronsky. "Vengeance is mine, I will repay" is the leitmotiv of the story. Anna pays not so much because she transgresses the moral code but because she refuses to observe the proprieties customarily exacted in such liaisons by the hypocritical high society to which she belongs.

Tolstoy, Leo and David McDuff (1985). The Kreutzer Sonata and Other Stories
. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England; New York, N.Y., U.S.A., Penguin Books.
When Marshal of the Nobility Pozdnyshev suspects his wife of having an affair with her music partner, his jealousy consumes him and drives him to murder. Controversial upon publication in 1890, The Kreutzer Sonata illuminates Tolstoy's then-feverish Christian ideals, his conflicts with lust and the hypocrisies of nineteenth-century marriage, and his thinking on the role of art and music in society.

Tolstoy, Leo, Ann Slater, et al. (2003). The Death of Ivan Ilyich; and, Master and Man
. New York, Modern Library.
This new edition combines Tolstoy's most famous short tale, The Death of Ivan Ilyich, with a less well known but equally brilliant gem, Master and Man, both newly translated by Ann Pasternak Slater. Both stories confront death and the process of dying: In Ivan Ilyich, a bureaucrat looks back over his life, which suddenly seems meaningless and wasteful, while in Master and Man, a landowner and servant must each confront the value of the other as they brave a devastating snowstorm. The quintessential Tolstoyan themes of mortality, spiritual redemption, and life's meaning are nowhere more movingly and deftly explored than in these two tales.

Toohey, Brian (2019). Secret: The Making of Australia's Security State
. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press.
Australia is less secure than it has ever been, and the greatest threat comes from our elected government. Political leaders increasingly promote secrecy, ignorance and fear to introduce new laws that undermine individual liberties and safety. It is a criminal offence to receive or publish a wide range of information unrelated to national security. Our defence weapons are so dependent on US technical support that Australia couldn't defend itself without US involvement. And comprehensive databases on citizens' digital fingerprints and facial recognition characteristics are being amassed by the Commonwealth. Conspiracy? Paranoia? Read Secret: The Making of Australia's Security State and you decide. Fresh archival material and revealing details of conversations between former CIA, US State Department and Australian officials will make you reconsider the world around you.

Tosches, Nick (1996). Country: The Twisted Roots of Rock 'n' Roll
. New York, Da Capo Press.
A prodigious researcher who indulges long lists of recordings like Biblical begats, Tosches proves an exacting and eccentric historian. He peppers his accounts of the development of the phonograph or the impact of Hawaiian guitar on popular music with surly insights and baiting opinions, such as his mislabeling of Buddy Holly as 'the first soft rocker.' Country was and remains wonderfully contentious, a much-needed corrective to the wholesome image that the industry has perpetuated for several decades now. In this bloody bar brawl of a book, the genre is rowdy, raunchy, incorrigible, and much more intriguing and honest than its modern-day counterparts. -Stephen M. Deusner

Torrence, Bruce F. and Eve A. Torrence (2009). The Student's Introduction to Mathematica : A Handbook for Precalculus, Calculus, and Linear Algebra
. Cambridge; New York, Cambridge University Press.
The unique feature of this compact student's introduction is that it presents concepts in an order that closely follows a standard mathematics curriculum, rather than structuring the book along features of the software. As a result, the book provides a brief introduction to those aspects of the Mathematica software program most useful to students. This book can be used in a variety of courses, from precalculus to linear algebra. This book will serve as an excellent tutorial for those wishing to learn Mathematica and brush up on their mathematics at the same time.

Townsend, Chris, Francesca Woodman, et al. (2006). Francesca Woodman
. London; New York, Phaidon.
A comprehensive monograph devoted to one of post-war photography's most original figures: the precocious and brilliant American, Francesca Woodman (1958-1981). Includes a major review of her life's work based on new research by art historian Chris Townsend; edited extracts and facsimile pages from Francesca's journals by her father George Woodman.

Tracy, James (2002). The Civil Disobedience Handbook: A Brief History and Practical Advice for the Politically Disenchanted
. San Francisco, Manic D Press.
From Thoreau's classic essay On the Duty of Civil Disobedience (reprinted in its entirety) to contemporary direct-action tactics used by the Ruckus Society and other nonviolent groups, this handbook outlines a brief history of social protest and provides information and resources for individuals interested in continuing the tradition. Advice on everything from being arrested to defending women's health clinics is included.

Traven, B. (1994). The Bridge in the Jungle
. Chicago, I.R. Dee.
Regarded by many as Traven's finest novel, The Bridge in the Jungle is a tale of how a desperately poor people come together in the face of death.

Traven, B. (1994). The Carreta
. Chicago, Elephant paperbacks.
In what have become known as the "Jungle Novels," B. Traven wrote during the 1930s an epic of the birth of the Mexican revolution. In these books Traven described the conditions of peonage and debt slavery suffered by the Indians while power in Mexico was in the hands of one man, Porfirio Diaz. "The Carreta" is the second of the six Jungle Novels. Andres, the young Indian who is the hero of the story, is an ox-cart driver. More sophisticated than most of his companions who toil in the great mahogany plantations (monterias), Andres can read and hopes to go back to his wife. But he labors with no awareness of how really impossible this is. Pressing down on him is the plight of his father, whom Andres believes was also sold to the monteria because of Andres's failing. In "The Carreta," Traven brings his remarkable narrative talents to bear on the coming of age of Andres and the oppressive world in which he finds he must make his way.

Traven, B. (1995). The Cotton-Pickers
. Chicago, I.R. Dee.
The background of The Cotton-Pickers, set in Mexico in the 1920s, is the struggle of the emerging trade unions to end the exploitation of hungry laborers. Gales, a laconic American drifter, turns his hand for anything for a meal and a flea-bitten bunk - he works on a cotton plantation, in an oil field, in a bakery, as a cowboy for a North American ranch owner. But he hates exploitation, so he leaves behind him a trail of rebellion. Underlying this lively and amusing tale of his adventures is a powerful study of social injustice, and most of all a testament to the strength of human courage and dignity - one of Traven's favorite themes.

Traven, B. (1991). The Death Ship: The Story of an American Sailor
. Brooklyn, N.Y., L. Hill Books.
The Death Ship tells the story of an American sailor, stateless and penniless because he has lost his passport, who is harassed by police and hounded across Europe until he finds an "illegal" job shoveling coal in the hold of a steamer bound for destruction.

Traven, B. and Desmond Ivo Vesey (1995). General from the Jungle
. Chicago, I.R. Dee.
General from the Jungle is the sixth and last of B. Traven's legendary Jungle Novels, a fictional epic of the birth of the Mexican Revolution. In this masterpiece on guerilla warfare, Traven tells the story of Juan Mendez, perhaps the youngest and greatest of the Indian rebel chieftains, who leads an ill-equuipped and hungry band against the government forces. With brilliance and cunning, Mendez brutally attacks the federally protected fincas. The book is filled with marvelously drawn characters, yet the true hero is the army itself - illiterate, uneducated, and poor, but resourceful and dangerous.

Traven, B. (1993). Government
. Chicago, I.R. Dee.
The first of Traven's legendary Jungle Novels, Government depicts the political corruption that infected even the smallest villages in Mexico before the revolution.

Traven, B. (1994). March to the Monteria
. Chicago, I.R. Dee.
In the third of his six Jungle Novels, set in the great mahogany plantations of southern Mexico in the years before the revolution, Traven traces the beginnings of consciousness which led to rebellion by the Indians who worked in debt-slavery.

Traven, B. (1993). The Night Visitor and Other Stories
. Chicago, I.R. Dee.
Ten of Traven's remarkable short stories, displaying a sampling of his interests and his superb storytelling talents.

Traven, B. (1994). The Rebellion of the Hanged
. Chicago, I.R. Dee.
Rebellion of the Hanged, the fifth of B. Traven's six Jungle Novels, is full of emotion. This is a story of Indians in southern Mexico confronting an exhausting oppression and then crossing the bridge to rebellion. Set in the time of the Mexican Revolution the novel addresses the struggles in their individual lives as Native American mohagany workers revolt against the owners of the camps in a march through the jungle during a horrible rainy season.

Traverso, Enzo (2016). Left-Wing Melancholia: Marxism, History, and Memory
. New York, Columbia University Press.
Marvelously learned and gorgeously poetic, Left-Wing Melancholia is a transcendent masterpiece of the Marxist imagination. Each engrossing chapter provides a tour-de-force of trenchant observations and lucid argumentation about the melancholic landscape of socialist memory. Intricately constructed with acrobatic prose, electric compressions, and magisterial assuredness, Traverso's scholarly milestone synthesizes an ambitious spectrum of interventions into the revolutionary aspirations and defeats of the twentieth century that is historically engaging, eminently readable, and pressingly pertinent. --Alan Wald

Tricycle Theatre (2010)). The Great Game: Afghanistan
. London, England (UK), Oberon Books.
Features new plays by Richard Bean, Simon Stephens, David Edgar, David Greig, Stephen Jeffreys, Ron Hutchinson, Amit Gupta, Joy Wilkinson, JT Rogers, Colin Teevan, Abi Morgan, and Ben Ockrent that will be performed as part of the Tricycle Theatre's The Great Game: Afghanistan play cycle.

Trollope, Anthony (1973). Can You Forgive Her?
London; New York, Oxford University Press.
In this, the first of the Palliser parliamentary novels, the plight of women in marriage, politics and private life is seen through the eyes of Alice and Kate Vavasor, Lady Glencora, and the coquettish Mrs. Greenow.

Trollope, Anthony (1973). The Duke's Children
. London; New York, Oxford University Press.
Novel by Anthony Trollope, published serially in 1879-80 and in book form in 1880; it is the final volume of the Palliser Novels. Plantagenet Palliser, Duke of Omnium and former prime minister of England, is now a widower. He is concerned that his three children--Lord Silverbridge, Lord Gerald, and Lady Mary--will not uphold the values of their ancient lineage. Though their politics, sense of their place in society, and choice of marital partners all cause him considerable anxiety, the novel ends on an optimistic note.

Trollope, Anthony (1973). Phineas Redux
. London, New York, Oxford University Press.
The fourth novel in Trollope's Palliser series, Phineas Redux stands on its own as a compelling work of political intrigue, personal crisis, and romantic jealousy. Phineas Finn lives quietly in Dublin, resigned to the fact that his political career is over and coming to terms with the death of his wife. He receives an unexpected invitation to return to Parliament, and jumps at the chance, whereupon old romances and rivalries are revived. When his adversary, Mr. Bonteen, is murdered, suspicion immediately falls on Finn, and his former friends and lovers seem only to add to his shame.

Trollope, Anthony (1973). The Prime Minister
. London; New York, Oxford University Press.
Novel by Anthony Trollope, published serially during 1875 and 1876 and in book form in 1876. Considered by modern critics to represent the apex of the Palliser Novels, it is the fifth in the series and sustains two plot lines. One records the clash between the Duke of Omnium, now prime minister of a coalition government, and his high-spirited wife, Lady Glencora, whose drive to become the most brilliant hostess in society causes embarrassment for her husband and eventually contributes to his downfall. The second plot relates the machinations of Ferdinand Lopez, an ambitious social climber who wins the support of Lady Glencora--but not her husband--for an election campaign. The novel brilliantly dissects the politics of both marriage and government.

Trollope, Anthony (1982). Phineas Finn: The Irish Member
. London; New York, Oxford University Press.
Novel by Anthony Trollope, first published serially from October 1867 to May 1869 and in two volumes in 1869. It is the second of the Palliser Novels. Trollope based some of the Parliamentary characters that appear in the novel on real-life counterparts, such as Benjamin Disraeli, William Gladstone, and John Bright. The novel concerns the rapid rise and eventual resignation of Phineas Finn, an impoverished, intelligent, and charming member of Parliament from Ireland. Finn becomes romantically involved with several women: his patron, Lady Laura Standish, who marries another; Violet Effingham, who weds a volatile nobleman; Madame Marie Max Goesler, a wealthy, sophisticated widow; and his patient sweetheart, Mary Flood-Jones.

Trollope, Anthony (1983). The Eustace Diamonds
. London; New York, Oxford University Press.
Anthony Trollope's celebrated Parliamentary novels, of which The Eustace Diamonds (1873) is the third and most famous, are at once unfailingly amusing social comedies, melodramas of greed and deception, and precise nature studies of the political animal in its mid-Victorian habitat. With its purloined jewels, its conniving, resilient, mercenary heroine, and its partiality for the human spectacle in all its complexity, The Eustace Diamonds is a splendid example of Trollope's art at its most assured.

Trotsky, Leon (1957). The History of the Russian Revolution
. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press.
This is a huge and wonderful book-- three volumes in one book, some 1200 pages in all. The story Trotsky lays out is most inspiring and encouraging: how revolutionary-minded workers and peasants in Russia, led by the Bolshevik party, overthrew the centuries-old Czarist monarchy, defeated the attempts to impose a capitalist dictatorship and went on to establish a worker and peasant revolutionary government, opening the road to the possibility of building a socialist society. It's a book you can read repeatedly, getting more out of it each time.

Trotsky explains with rich detail the growing social crisis that wracked Russia, the devastating impact of World War I, the economic collapse, and the incapacity of the old regime to offer any way out. He takes up political developments amongst workers and peasants and the oppressed nationalities of the Russian Empire, including the many millions forced into the Russian army. You understand their growing conviction that the old society had to be and could be overturned and a new order established. And Trotsky gives real insight into the leadership that made possible an actual revolution under these conditions-- the development of the Bolshevik party led by V.I. Lenin and it's successful fight to win the allegiance of the struggling millions.

Trotsky was, along with Lenin, a central leader of the 1917 revolution and of the government it established. After Lenin's death in 1924, he led the international fight to defend the Bolshevik's revolutionary course against the conservative and reactionary bureaucracy headed by Joseph Stalin that came to power later in the Soviet Union. This work was a key part of Trotsky's efforts to make the real facts and lessons 1917 available to future generations of workers, farmers and radicalizing young people. Read it along with some of his many other important works, including The Transitional Program for Socialist Revolution, In Defense of Marxism, The Revolution Betrayed, and The Struggle Against Fascism in Germany.

Trotsky, Leon (1969). The Permanent Revolution, and Results and Prospects
. New York, Pathfinder Press.
Trotsky's initial statement of the theory of "permanent revolution" made him celebrated as the prophet of Russia's revolutions of 1905 and 1917. In 1924, Stalin - who had originally condemned the idea of a socialist revolution in backward Russia as "utopian" - launched a campaign against the Theory of the Permanent Revolution as the origianl sin of Trotskyism.

Trotsky, Leon (1970). My Life
. Gloucester, Mass., P. Smith.
Since its publication in 1930, My Life has been recognized as one of the world's great autobiographies. Its literary qualities alone make it a valuable human document. But because of Trotsky's role as a central leader and, second to V. I. Lenin, the most prominent figure of the October 1917 revolution in Russia, the book has become a classic historical document as well.

Written in the first year of Trotsky's exile in Turkey, My Life tells the story of the Russian revolutions of 1905 and 1917, and of the struggle to consolidate the young workers and peasants government. It recounts the fight to defend the revolution's internationalist course, championed by Lenin, against the counterrevolutionary policies of growing petty-bourgeois social layers headed by Joseph Stalin.

Trotsky's continuation of this struggle in exile is told in an introduction by Joseph Hansen, Trotsky's secretary from 1937 until his assassination in 1940 by Stalin's secret police.

Trotsky, Leon (2005). Literature and Revolution
. Chicago, Haymarket Books.
"Roll over Derrida, Literature and Revolution is back in print. Nothing in the postmodern canon comes close to the intellectual grandeur of Trotsky's vision of art and literature in an age of revolution, or his extraordinary meditations on the popular ownership of culture." - Mike Davis

Trotsky, Leon and Max Eastman (2004). The Revolution Betrayed
. Mineola, N.Y., Dover Publications.

Trudeau, G. B. (2010). 40: A Doonesbury Retrospective
. Kansas City, MO, Andrews McMeel Pub., LLC.
This monolithic overview of G.B. Trudeau's landmark newspaper strip is the most comprehensive book on the subject imaginable, a must-read for both fans and those interested in what amounts to a chronicle of American society over the past four decades. The book reprints virtually all of the strip's significant story arcs in sensibly abridged versions, trimming the fat for newcomers yet retaining all of the narrative qualities that have made the series a riveting but topical narrative. Despite the age of some strips, the material holds up and the then innovative wry attitude of its cast (and, by default, its creator) remains fresh, compelling and frequently hilarious. Forty years have done nothing to dull the edge of Trudeau's left-wing political stance, and his gift for blending sociopolitical commentary and multigenerational serialized narrative have only been refined over time. Mike, B.D., Zonker, J.J., Alex, and the huge cast have become like friends to faithful readers, and leafing through the pages is like taking a long look through a family scrapbook. A gorgeous tribute to a seminal comic strip.

Truffaut, François (1994). The Films in My Life
. New York, Da Capo Press.
Truffaut writes extensively about his heroes, from Hitchcock to Welles, Chaplin to Renoir, Bunuel to Bergman, Clouzot to Cocteau, Capra to Hawks, Guitry to Fellini, sharing analysis and insight as to what made them film legends, and how their work led Truffaut and his fellow directors into classics like The 400 Blows, Jules and Jim, and the French New Wave Movement.

Truffaut, François, Alfred Hitchcock, et al. (1984). Hitchcock
. New York, Simon and Schuster.
Any book-length interview with Alfred Hitchcock is valuable, but considering that this volume's interlocutor is François Truffaut, the conversation is remarkable indeed. Here is a rare opportunity to eavesdrop on two cinematic masters from very different backgrounds as they cover each of Hitch's films in succession. Though this book was initially published in 1967 when Hitchcock was still active, Truffaut later prepared a revised edition that covered the final stages of his career. It's difficult to think of a more informative or entertaining introduction to Hitchcock's art, interests, and peculiar sense of humor. The book is a storehouse of insight and witticism, including the master's impressions of a classic like Rear Window ("I was feeling very creative at the time, the batteries were well charged"), his technical insight into Psycho's shower scene ("the knife never touched the body; it was all done in the [editing]"), and his ruminations on flops such as Under Capricorn ("If I were to make another picture in Australia today, I'd have a policeman hop into the pocket of a kangaroo and yell 'Follow that car!'"). This is one of the most delightful film books in print. - Raphael Shargel

Trumpbour, John (1989). How Harvard Rules: Reason in the Service of Empire
. Boston, MA, South End Press.
A scathing indictment of Harvard that goes well beyond the fact that it is generally perceived as elitist. The contributors to this book, all Harvard graduates or faculty, assert that Harvard is, at least partially, racist, ethnocentric, sexist, and hostile to progressive intellectuals, and that it has compromised its independence. Frankly, this is a hard book to assess objectively without inside knowledge. However, the authors have made a strong case for several of the charges. First, it seems apparent tht the Harvard Corporation and administration wield disporportionate power over decisions which legitimately belong to the faculty; second, appointments are, in part, political decisions not based on merit, especially for the younger faculty with left-of-center views. Some parts of the book are simply mean-spirited. However, the issues raised and the documentation presented combine to make this a book which will undoubtedly focus national attention on the problems facing the research university in the 1990s.

Tubiana, Jérôme; Alexandre Franc, illus. (2019). Guantánamo Kid: The True Story of Mohammed El-Gharani
. London, SelfMadeHero.
Saudi Arabia offers few prospects for the bright young Mohammed El-Gharani. With roots in Chad, Mohammed is treated like a second-class citizen. His access to healthcare and education are restricted; nor can he make the most of his entrepreneurial spirit. At the age of 14, having scraped together some money as a street trader, Mohammed seizes an opportunity to study in Pakistan. One Friday in Karachi, Mohammed is detained during a raid on his local mosque. After being beaten and interrogated, he is sold to the American government by the Pakistani forces as a member of Al-Qaida with links to Osama Bin Laden, but Mohammed has heard of neither. The Americans fly him first to Kandahar and then to Guantánamo Bay.

Tuchman, Barbara Wertheim (1994). The Guns of August
. New York, Ballantine.
Historian and Pulitzer Prize-winning author Barbara Tuchman has brought to life again the people and events that led up to World War I. With attention to fascinating detail, and an intense knowledge of her subject and its characters, Ms. Tuchman reveals, for the first time, just how the war started, why, and why it could have been stopped but wasn't.

Tufte, Edward R. (1990). Envisioning Information
. Cheshire, Conn. (P.O. Box 430, Cheshire 06410), Graphics Press.
A remarkable range of examples for the idea of visual thinking, with beautifully printed pages. A real treat for all who reason and learn by means of images. - Rudolf Arnheim

Tulloch, Sara (1991). The Oxford Dictionary of New Words: A Popular Guide to Words in the News
. Oxford [England]; New York, Oxford University Press.
In this new dictionary, about 2000 contemporary words and phrases are given international Phonetic Alphabet pronunciation, one or more definitions, accounts of origin and usage, and readable, useful summaries of their background. All the information provided is first-rate. Examples of usage are quoted, with citations, and a set of 11 "subject icons" highlight graphically the fields of interest (business, drugs, music, etc.) in which the terms operate.

Drawing words from politics, the environmental movement, computers and technology, business, sports, entertainment, and many other areas, Tulloch goes beyond the usual informative but narrow dictionary entry to offer readers a rich history of the recent changes not only in our language but in our culture as well. Just skimming the headwords is like fast-forwarding through the eighties: bailout, cocooning, deniability, the disappeared, glasnost, lambada, safe sex, spin doctor, fun run, insider trading, genetic fingerprinting, thirtysomething, designer water, liposuction, Cablevision, gentrification, intifada, and DINK (Double Income, No Kids). And the histories that Tulloch provides are so interesting that even if you know the meaning of a word you will find the article fascinating.

Turgenev, Ivan Sergeevich and Richard Freeborn (1998). Fathers and Sons
. Oxford [England]; New York, Oxford University Press.
Novel by Ivan Turgenev, published in 1862 as Ottsy i deti. Quite controversial at the time of its publication, Fathers and Sons concerns the inevitable conflict between generations and between the values of traditionalists and intellectuals. The physician Bazarov, the novel's protagonist, is the most powerful of Turgenev's creations. He is a nihilist, denying the validity of all laws save those of the natural sciences. Uncouth and forthright in his opinions, he is nonetheless susceptible to love and by that fact doomed to unhappiness. In sociopolitical terms he represents the victory of the revolutionary nongentry intelligentsia over the gentry intelligentsia to which Turgenev belonged. At the novel's first appearance the radical younger generation attacked it bitterly as a slander, and conservatives condemned it as too lenient in its characterization of nihilism.

Turgenev, Ivan Sergeevich (1970). Home of the Gentry
. Harmondsworth, Penguin.
On one level the novel is about the homecoming of Lavretsky, who, broken and disillusioned by a failed marriage, returns to his estate and finds love again - only to lose it. The sense of loss and of unfulfilled promise, beautifully captured by Turgenev, reflects his underlying theme that humanity is not destined to experience happiness except as something ephemeral and inevitably doomed. On another level Turgenev is presenting the homecoming of a whole generation of young Russians who have fallen under the spell of European ideas that have uprooted them from Russia, their 'home', but have proved ultimately superfluous. In tragic bewilderment, they attempt to find reconciliation with their land. Turgenev wrote the novel shortly after his 40th birthday, and it expresses some of his feelings about middle age, as its protagonist is forced to confront the mistakes of his past and determine what options are left for his dwindling future.

Turner, Fred (2006). From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism
. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
Turner traces the previously untold story of a highly influential group of San Francisco Bay–area entrepreneurs: Stewart Brand and the Whole Earth network. Between 1968 and 1998, via such familiar venues as the National Book Award–winning Whole Earth Catalog, the computer conferencing system known as The WELL, and, ultimately, the launch of the wildly successful Wired magazine, Brand and his colleagues brokered a long-running collaboration between San Francisco flower power and the emerging technological hub of Silicon Valley. Thanks to their vision, counterculturalists and technologists alike joined together to reimagine computers as tools for personal liberation, the building of virtual and decidedly alternative communities, and the exploration of bold new social frontiers.

Turse, Nick (2013). Kill Anything That Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam
. New York, Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt and Co.
Americans have long been taught that events such as the notorious My Lai massacre were isolated incidents in the Vietnam War, carried out by "a few bad apples." But as award-winning journalist and historian Nick Turse demonstrates in this groundbreaking investigation, violence against Vietnamese noncombatants was not at all exceptional during the conflict. Rather, it was pervasive and systematic, the predictable consequence of orders to "kill anything that moves." Drawing on more than a decade of research in secret Pentagon files and extensive interviews with American veterans and Vietnamese survivors, Turse reveals for the first time how official policies resulted in millions of innocent civilians killed and wounded. In shocking detail, he lays out the workings of a military machine that made crimes in almost every major American combat unit all but inevitable. Kill Anything That Moves takes you from archives filled with Washington's long-suppressed war crime investigations to the rural Vietnamese hamlets that bore the brunt of the war; from boot camps where young American soldiers learned to hate all Vietnamese to bloodthirsty campaigns like Operation Speedy Express, in which a general obsessed with body counts led soldiers to commit what one participant called "a My Lai a month."

Tutuola, Amos (1994). The Palm-Wine Drinkard; and, My Life in the Bush of Ghosts
. New York, Grove Press.
When Amos Tutuola's first novel, The Palm-Wine Drinkard, appeared in 1952, it aroused exceptional worldwide interest. Drawing on the West African Yoruba oral folktale tradition, Tutuola described the odyssey of a devoted palm-wine drinker through a nightmare of fantastic adventure. Tutuola's second novel, My Life in the Bush of Ghosts, recounts the fate of mortals who stray into the world of ghosts, the heart of the tropical forest. Here, as every hunter and traveler knows, mortals venture at great peril, and it is here that a small boy is left alone.
This long-overlooked work appears here as Mark Twain intended it and replaces the bogus 1916 edition published by Albert Bigelow Paine, which relied on the first, instead of the final, draft, deleted one-fourth of the words, added a character, and misrepresented the ending. In addition, for the first time in the Mark Twain Library edition, a glossary of printer's terms is featured along with expert notes and commentary.

Twain, Mark (1992). Collected Tales, Sketches, Speeches & Essays
. New York, The Library of America: Distributed in the U.S. and Canada by Viking Press.
Louis J. Budd, editor. This landmark collection - the best and by far the fullest ever published - is the first to present the whole dazzling range of Twain's moods and styles. Based on extensive research into original sources, the 272 pieces in this collection cover Twain's entire career and take aim at everything from the fashion pages to presidential politics. "To read these pieces is to observe the emergence of a brilliant artist from the youthful apprentice and to witness that gifted man declining into the blackest pessimism and rage against the universe." - The New Criterion

Twain, Mark (1897)). Following the Equator: A Journey around the World
. Hartford, CT, American Publishing Company.
Social commentary in the form of a travelogue published by Mark Twain in 1897. Twain was practically bankrupt in 1894 due to investing heavily into the failed Paige Compositor. In an attempt to extricate himself from debt of $100,000 (equivalent of about $2.5 million in 2010) he undertook a tour of the British Empire in 1895 at age 60, a route chosen to provide numerous opportunities for lectures in English. The book is a social commentary, critical of racism towards blacks, Asians, and Indigenous groups; oppressive imperialism in the British Empire; and religious intolerance through missionary efforts.

Twain, Mark (2002). The Gilded Age and Later Novels
. New York, Library of America: Distributed to the trade in the United States by Penguin Putnam.
"Against the assault of laughter," Mark Twain once wrote, "nothing can stand." In The Gilded Age and Later Novels, the sixth volume in The Library of America's collection of Twain's writings, his acute sense of the human comedy is as irrepressible as ever. These five novels show America's greatest humorist in a range of moods and styles: satiric, playful, reminiscent, and philosophical.

The Gilded Age (1873) gave its name to an era. The book originated in a dinner-party challenge: Twain and his Hartford neighbor Charles Dudley Warner, complaining about the low quality of the novels their wives were reading, were challenged to do better. The resulting collaboration is a panorama of an age in which the nation's capital teemed with would-be power brokers and vast fortunes piled up amid thriving corruption. The novel features the remarkable Colonel Sellers, a visionary convinced that his odd inventions and schemes will bring him fame and riches.

Colonel Sellers returns in The American Claimant (1892). Now the would-be heir to an English title, Sellers concocts extravagant inventions, among them a "cursing phonograph" for timid sea captains and a method for "materializing" the dead. As Twain created this medley of role reversals and madcap schemes, he wrote, "I wake up in the night laughing at its ridiculous situations."

Tom Sawyer Abroad (1894) and Tom Sawyer, Detective (1896) are late, fanciful extensions of the adventures begun in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. In the first, Tom, Huck and Jim escape again from civilization, not on a raft but in a balloon which carries them across the Atlantic. In Tom Sawyer, Detective, Twain transposes a seventeenth-century Danish murder case to America, letting his famous pair play Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.

Twain's haunting final novel, left in manuscript after his death, No. 44, The Mysterious Stranger, is a psychic adventure set in the gothic gloom of a medieval Austrian village. Unusual among Twain's works for its phantasmagoric trappings, the novel interrogates the latent powers of the human mind. Originally published in heavily edited form, it appears here in the authoritative text established a half century after Twain's death.

Twain, Mark and Susan K. Harris (1994). Historical Romances: The Prince and the Pauper, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc
. New York, Library of America: Distributed to the trade in the U.S. by Penguin Books USA.
Susan K. Harris, editor. Collected for the first time in a single volume, Mark Twain's three literary encounters with medieval and Renaissance Europe. The Prince and the Pauper, a children's classic, brings an adult American's point of view to the traditional society of Henry VIII's England. In A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, a hilarious burlesque of knighthood gives way to a darker questioning of both ancient and modern society. The long unavailable fictional biography of "the most extraordinary person the human race has ever produced," Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc provides a glimpse of the moral imagination of America's greatest humorist.

Twain, Mark, Guy Cardwell, et al. (1984). The Innocents Abroad; Roughing It
. New York, N.Y., Literary Classics of the U.S.: Distributed to the trade in the U.S. and Canada by the Viking Press.
Mark Twain helped to devise the personal style of American travel writing. Dry guidebook facts were not for him. He could not help turning everything he saw into literature when he trained his keen eye on foreign people and places. No matter what unusual customs he saw or monuments he climbed, he remained Mark Twainýa wised-up observer disguised as a wide-eyed innocentý Much of the European scene he describes remains unchanged; all of it is a delight to revisit with Twain in the pilot house.

Twain, Mark (1982). Mississippi Writings
. New York, N.Y., Literary Classics of the United States: Distributed to the trade by the Viking Press.
Each of the four books reprinted in this volume is presented in the best text now available. The text for The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (Berkeley, 1980) reprinted here was prepared for the Iowa Center for Textual Studies by Paul Baender and his associates according to the standards established by the Center for Editions of American Authors of the Modern Language Association of America and has received the approval of the Center. It uses as copy-text Samuel Clemens' original ink holograph manuscript (now at the Riggs Memorial Library of Georgetown University), which was printer's copy for the first American edition, and accepts certain variants from a secretarial copy (in the Mark Twain Birthplace Memorial Shrine, Florida, Missouri) and from different printings of the first American edition.

Clemens' manuscript had a gestation of at least five years. In working through Clemens' papers after his death, A. B. Paine found a manuscript of fifty-eight half-sheets numbered 3-60 (the first two pages were missing) and wrote on page 3: "Boy's Manuscript. Probably written about 1870." Paine also discovered a single page of a holograph manuscript that dramatizes the opening of Tom Sawyer, with "Aunt Winny" ("Aunt Polly" in the book) calling for Tom. Bernard DeVoto, who succeeded Paine as editor of the Mark Twain Papers, recognized the "Boy's Manuscript" as containing characters and incidents leading toward Tom Sawyer and accepted 1870 as the probable year of composition but argued against Paine's belief that the dramatized version, which Paine dated "about 1872," was the predecessor of Tom Sawyer. The dramatization, DeVoto believed, was attempted after the completion of a version of the novel. Editors of the Iowa edition, however, date the dramatized page and the first 118 pages of what became the complete manuscript version of the novel at approximately the same time--late in 1872 or early in 1873.

During the early months of 1873, Clemens set Tom Sawyer aside and worked on The Gilded Age. He next took up Tom Sawyer in earnest while at Quarry Farm in April, 1874, and worked on it intermittently until September, finishing about 400 manuscript pages. He returned to it in the spring or summer of 1875, completing the book early in July. As Hamlin Hill has shown, the original manuscript indicates that during those last months Clemens developed his ideas about character and structure and rearranged large sections of manuscript.

Revision went on in several stages. Clemens made numerous changes in the manuscript (see pp. 555-600 of the Iowa text) and nearly half as many in an amanuensis copy (pp. 601-619 of the Iowa text), some of the changes in the latter predating changes in the holograph original. William Dean Howells finished correcting and commenting on the revised secretarial copy in November, 1875. The book was published in England in June, 1876, and in America, after many delays, on December 8.

As early as January, 1866, Clemens had contemplated writing a travel book about the Mississippi River. Five years later, he told his wife that he proposed to spend two months on the river and take notes, but the actual beginning of "the Mississippi book" did not come until William Dean Howells, editor of the Atlantic Monthly, pressed Clemens for a contribution to follow "A True Story" (November, 1874). Clemens wrote twice to Howells on October 24, 1874, first to say "my head won't 'go,'" next to propose a topic. While walking in the woods with his friend and pastor, Joseph Twichell, he explained, he "got to telling him about old Mississippi days of steamboating glory & grandeur" as he had seen them from the pilot house. Twichell exclaimed, "What a virgin subject to hurl into a magazine!" The work that resulted went into seven issues of the Atlantic, January through August, 1875, omitting July.

The contribution to the Atlantic was not nearly enough to make a subscription book, however, and only after a series of efforts to persuade Howells or some other friend to accompany him on a note-taking visit to the Mississippi did Clemens at last undertake the journey in 1882. By the terms of his contract for the book with James R. Osgood, Clemens became in effect his own publisher, Osgood--who had no experience in the publishing of subscription books--his agent.

Clemens redivided chapters, revised chapter titles, added "The Record of Some Famous Trips" (334-36), made perhaps forty-five other changes, and the Atlantic material became chapters IV through XVII of the book. In composing the additional forty-six chapters--a wearying task--Clemens made voluminous use of his own travel notes and padded the work with previously written but unpublished tales, such as "The Professor's Yarn" (chapter XXXVI). He also borrowed perhaps 11,000 words from other writers. Most interestingly, he took the "raft passage" from his manuscript for what later became Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and incorporated it in "Frescoes from the Past" (chapter III). Indeed, he crowded so many pages into his manuscript that some became superfluous; he was able to omit some 13,000 to 15,000 words and to move other material to appendices.

The first American edition (1883) is reprinted here. Ultimately, the methodically prepared text of the future will involve a comparison of the first American edition and the holograph manuscript held since 1909 by the J. Pierpont Morgan Library. The manuscript contains matter not in the book, and the book, matter not in the manuscript. Except for a few pages that Clemens called "the eighth batch" and--because of the illness of his typist--sent to Osgood in holograph form, the first American edition was set from a typescript made from the Morgan manuscript. Only a few pages of the typescript survive (at the Morgan Library and at the Houghton Library, Harvard). Clemens revised both the typescript and printer's proofs. That collating the manuscript with the first American edition will reveal errors in the book text has been shown by Willis Wager in "A Critical Edition of the Morgan Manuscript of Mark Twain's Life on the Mississippi," a dissertation submitted at New York University, Washington Square College, 1942.

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was probably begun early in July, 1876, for on August 9 Clemens wrote to tell Howells that he had started another boys' book. Soon afterwards, however, he set aside the approximately 400 pages of manuscript that he had composed. He may have taken it up again in the winter of 1879-80; probably he prepared some working notes in 1882; and he went seriously to work in 1883. On August 22, 1883, he informed Howells that he had almost finished; on April 8, 1884, he thanked Howells for offering to read proof for him; and on August 7 he mailed proofs to Howells.

The first American edition of February 18, 1885, is at present the best available text. A holograph manuscript of about 700 sheets of octavo-size paper representing approximately three-fifths of the book, preserved at the Buffalo Public Library, is fragmentary and in important respects unlike the finished book. It begins in the middle of chapter XII, continues through chapter XIV, resumes again with chapter XXII, and continues to the end. Howells had part of a manuscript retyped in May, 1884, and somewhat more than one-fourth of the book, much edited by Richard Watson Gilder, appeared in the Century Magazine. Existing proof sheets for the book (preserved among the Mark Twain Papers at Berkeley) cover a part of the text that is missing from the manuscript. Following editing of a typescript by Howells, the novel was printed by Clemens' own publishing house under the eye of his manager, Charles L. Webster. Webster added the table of contents, the running heads, and the captions for illustrations. Some printer's proofs were read by Howells; Clemens wrote, "I cursed my way through the rest and survived."

Clemens once commented that writing Pudd'nhead Wilson cost him little effort but that revising it almost killed him. In actuality his revisions were less than scrupulously made, yet the novel that he published was radically different from the one that he started to write some time after December, 1891, when conjoined Italian twins began to tour the United States. He worked on the story in Europe early in 1892, a time of great personal financial stress, in Nauheim and in Florence. An incomplete manuscript of perhaps 10,000 words called "Those Extraordinary Twins," now preserved in the Berg Collection of the New York Public Library, records this early stage. But the farce about Siamese twins that Clemens originally had in mind began to sprawl as he added characters and themes. During the summer of 1892 he made an effort to recast it, ending in December with a long, mainly holograph, partly typescript text that was unfavorably criticized by his wife and by readers in New York. This extended version, now preserved in the J. Pierpont Morgan Library, represents the last stage in composition before Clemens made large shifts, exclusions, and additions, and produced a publishable text.

During June and July of 1893, Clemens separated the twins, subordinated non-essential characters, and centered the story, he said, on the murder and the trial. The resulting text, probably mainly typescript, was ready on August 14 to send to the Century Magazine, which bought the serial rights in September, 1893, and published the story from December, 1893, through June, 1894, under the title Pudd'nhead Wilson, A Tale. This Century text, for which Clemens himself read at least part of the proof, is reprinted here.

For book publication Clemens turned to the American Publishing Company, from which he had parted in anger a dozen years earlier, and to Chatto & Windus, in England. The American publisher used the Century text for printer's copy of Pudd'nhead Wilson and added what Clemens called "refuse matter," a patched-together version of the excluded story of Siamese twins, to enlarge the volume. This edition was almost surely not proofread by Clemens, nor was the English first edition (which does not include the "refuse matter," Those Extraordinary Twins).

There are numerous small differences among comparable passages in the Century text, the first American edition, the Berg manuscript, and the Morgan manuscript; but, except for subtractions and additions, most of them, whether in accidentals or in substantive distinctions, are minor. Readers who wish to examine lists of variants may consult the text established by Sidney E. Berger, Pudd'nhead Wilson and Those Extraordinary Twins (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1980).

The standards for American English continue to fluctuate and in some ways were different in earlier periods from what they are now. In nineteenth-century writings, for example, a word might be spelled in more than one way, even in the same work. Commas could be used expressively to suggest the movements of voice, and capitals sometimes gave significances to a word beyond those it might have in its lower-case form. Since modernization would remove these effects, this volume has preserved the spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and wording of the editions reprinted here.

The present edition is concerned only with presenting the texts of these editions; it does not attempt to reproduce features of the typographic design--such as the display capitalization of chapter openings. Footnotes within the text are those supplied by Clemens. Open contractions are retained if they appeared in the original edition. Corrections have been made in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer based on "The Note on the Text" in the Mark Twain Library edition (Berkeley, 1982) of that text, signed by Robert H. Hirst, General Editor, Mark Twain Project. Typographical errors in the other editions used here have also been corrected.

Twain, Mark (1982). No. 44, the Mysterious Stranger: Being an Ancient Tale Found in a Jug and Freely Translated from the Jug
. Berkeley, University of California Press.
Mark Twain's fantastical last novel took him twelve years--and three long drafts--to complete. Based on boyhood memories of the Mississippi River Valley and of the print shops of Hannibal, the story is set in medieval Austria at the dawn of the printing craft. It is a psychic adventure, full of phantasmagoric effects, in which a penniless printer's apprentice--a youthful, mysterious stranger with the curious name 44--gradually reveals his otherworldly powers and the hidden possibilities of the mind. Ending on a startling note, this surprisingly existential novel reveals a darker side to the author's genius.

Tynan, Kenneth and John Lahr (2001). The Diaries of Kenneth Tynan
. New York, Bloomsbury.
Tynan was the most respected and feared theater critic of his age, a board member of London's National Theatre, and a producer of Oh! Calcutta! Edited by New Yorker drama critic Lahr (Prick Up Your Ears: The Biography of Joe Orton), his diaries, dating from 1970 to his death in 1980 at the age of 53, will sell for the wrong reasons. His politics (Marxist) and his sexual habits (sadomasochist) provide sensationalism to spare: his observations will thus offend, titillate, or amuse. Tynan had acquaintances but few friends; a shameless name dropper, he sought the warmth of social contact. The value of this diary rests in its honesty, self-loathing, pleasure in life, and insight into his period. The critic's acumen illuminates the text throughout, as Tynan documents the shift in power from the Olivier years to the Peter Hall regime at the National Theatre, critiques travel and food, and savors the human comedy. After leaving the National, his life disintegrated into frantic travel, a search for work, and horror as his final illness, emphysema, destroyed him. Obituaries of departed friends and a clear-sighted examination of his failing talents make this a sustained and tragic document.

Tyson, Timothy B. (1999). Radio Free Dixie: Robert F. Williams and the Roots of Black Power
. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press.
To some, the civil rights radical Robert Williams's philosophy of armed self-defense was the very antithesis of Martin Luther King's nonviolent resistance. However, each man represented a wing of the growing civil rights movement, and both grasped and skillfully wielded the political leverage that the dynamics of the Cold War afforded the civil rights cause. After a stint in the army during WWII, Williams returned to his hometown in Monroe, N.C., where he built a uniquely militant NAACP chapter and attracted international attention to racist hypocrisy. When eventually forced by Ku Klux Klan vigilantes and an FBI dragnet to abandon his activities and flee the U.S. with his family in 1961, he found safe harbor in revolutionary Cuba, where he produced Radio Free Dixie, a program of politics and music broadcast to America. Written with the cooperation of Williams and his family, Tyson's firecracker text crackles with brilliant and lasting images of black life in the Carolinas and across the South in the '40s, '50s and '60s. Liberally peppered with quotes from Williams, many taken from his unpublished autobiography, While God Lay Sleeping, as well as from interviews and radio tapes, the book is imbued with the man's voice and his indefatigable spirit. An assistant professor of Afro-American studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the co-editor of Democracy Betrayed, Tyson successfully portrays Williams as a troubled visionary, a strong, stubborn and imperfect man, one who greatly influenced what became the Black Power Movement and its young leaders.

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