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James Joyce by Stephen Alcorn, 1981.

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Jaber, Rabee (2013). The Mehlis Report. New York, New Directions.
A complex thriller, The Mehlis Report introduces English readers to a highly talented Arabic writer. When former Lebanese prime minister Rafiq Hariri is killed by a massive bomb blast, the U.N. appoints German judge Detlev Mehlisto conduct an investigation of the attack - while explosions continue to rock Beirut. Mehlis's report is eagerly awaited by the entire Lebanese population. First we meet Saman Yarid, a middle-aged architect who wanders the tense streets of Beirut and, like everyone else in the city, can't stop thinking about the pending report. Saman's sister Josephine, who was kidnapped in 1983,narrates the second part of The Mehlis Report: Josephine is dead, yet exists in a bizarre underworld in the bowels of Beirut where the dead are busy writing their memoirs. Then the ghost of Hariri himself appears.

Jacoby, Annice (2009). Street Art San Francisco: Mission Muralismo. New York, Abrams.
With 600 stunning photographs, this comprehensive book showcases more than three decades of street art in San Francisco's legendary Mission District. Beginning in the early 1970s, a provocative street-art movement combining elements of Mexican mural painting, surrealism, pop art, urban punk, eco-warrior, cartoon, and graffiti has flourished in this dynamic, multicultural community. Rigo, Las Mujeres Muralistas, Gronk, Barry McGee (Twist), R. Crumb, Spain Rodriguez, the Billboard Liberation Front, Swoon, Sam Flores, Neckface, Shepard Fairey, Juana Alicia, Os Gemeos, Reminesce, and Andrew Schoultz are among the many artists who have made the streets of the Mission their public gallery. Essays and commentaries by insiders involved with the movement document the artistic, social, and political forces that have shaped Mission Muralismo.

Jacoby, Susan (2004). Freethinkers: A History of American Secularism
. New York, Metropolitan Books.
When the Supreme Court recently listened to debate about the words "under God" as they appear in the Pledge of Allegiance, it heard arguments from those who think that the expression endorses religion, and thus violates the "establishment" clause of the First Amendment, and from those who believe that acknowledgment of the Almighty is somehow beyond religion and/or no bad thing. What is generally overlooked is that the Pledge was initially composed without those two words, which were inserted only during the Red scare of the 1950s. Or to put it another way, the United States managed to survive two world wars, a depression and the first decade of the Cold War without any such invocation. Thus those who want the Pledge restored to its authentic version can claim to be acting as strict constructionists with a solid defense of "original intent."

The great virtue of Susan Jacoby's book is that it succeeds so well in its own original intent: showing that secularism, agnosticism and atheism are as American as cherry pie. Indeed, this is the first and only country to adopt a Constitution that specifically excludes all reference to a higher power. (I say "specifically" because those meeting in Philadelphia did consider, and did decisively reject, any such reference.) Many were the bishops and preachers of the time who warned that God would punish such profanity, but many were the preachers who said the same about the Virginia Statute on Religious Freedom, which did no more than state that no citizen could be obliged to pay for the upkeep of a church in which he did not believe.

Two of the great books of the 18th-century Enlightenment were Thomas Paine's The Age of Reason and Constantine Volney's The Ruins. Thomas Jefferson wrote in praise of the first and helped translate the second from the French. Abraham Lincoln read both, and we have his great colleague William Herndon's word for it that his own agnosticism was the result of Lincoln's persuasion. I think it could fairly be said, however, that American schoolchildren are not taught that Jefferson and Lincoln were unbelievers, or that Jefferson took a razor blade and cut out all the passages of the New Testament that he found offensive to reason or common sense -- leaving him with a highly condensed version. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, co-founder of the movement for female emancipation, was to develop this idea into the Woman's Bible, which blamed the religious mentality for the degradation of her sex.

The refusal to establish any religion, or state support for same, helped spare the United States the fate of Europe, where slaughter between discrepant Christian sects had come close to extinguishing civilization. It did not, however, prevent Americans from invoking the blessing of heaven on whichever cause they favored. The Rev. Timothy Dwight, celebrated president of Yale, denounced smallpox vaccinations as a blasphemous interference with God's design. The upholders of slavery claimed (correctly) that there was biblical warrant for the "peculiar institution." The abolitionists also warred in the name of the divine. The pulpits were just as much divided during the civil rights movement of the 1950s and '60s.

In lucid and witty prose, Jacoby has uncovered the hidden history of secular America, and awarded it a large share of credit in every movement for social and political reform. It's nice to read again of the friendship between Walt Whitman and Robert Ingersoll, the greatest anti-religious lecturer of his day. It's sobering to be reminded of how many states practiced overt sectarian discrimination, against Jews, Catholics and Quakers, even after the Founding Fathers had made plain their abhorrence of all such practices. And, of course, it is salutary to be reminded of how much plain villainy and stupidity has been promulgated from the platforms of the godly, many of whom would still like to retard the elementary teaching of science.

If the book has a fault, it is the near-axiomatic identification of the secular cause with the liberal one. Susan Jacoby has what might be called ACLU politics. To read her, you would not know that two of the most prominent intellectual gurus of American conservatism -- Ayn Rand and Leo Strauss -- were both determined nonbelievers. H.L. Mencken, who if not exactly a conservative was certainly not a liberal, had vast contempt for religion but is cited only briefly here for his role in the Scopes trial in Tennessee. Still, when Billy Graham can be asked to give the address at a service for the victims of Sept. 11, and can use the occasion to say that all the dead are now in heaven and would not rejoin us even if they could, it is essential to be reminded of our rationalist tradition -- and also of the fact that our current deadliest foe is conspicuously "faith-based." - Reviewed by Christopher Hitchens

Jahn, Janheinz (1990). Muntu: African Culture and the Western World
. New York, Grove Press.
Muntu was first published in English in 1961, but this landmark examination still provides one of the most in-depth looks at African and neo-African culture. In his insightful study, Janheinz Jahn surveys the whole range of traditional and modern African thought expressed in religion, language, philosophy, literature, art, music and dance. He demonstrates that African culture, far from being doomed to destruction or homogenization under the onslaught of the West, is evolving into a rich and independent civilization that is capable of incorporating those elements of the West that do not threaten its basic values. Muntu (the Bantu word for "human") presents an invaluable insight into the foundations of the unique and vital tapestry of cultures that compromise Africa today.

James, C.L.R. (1989). The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution
. New York; Vintage Books.
The Black Jacobins tells the story of one of the major episodes in the great French Revolution: the struggles in the West Indian island of San Domingo which culminated in the only successful slave uprising in history and the establishment of the free Negro republic of Haiti.

James, C.L.R. (2001). Mariners, Renegades and Castaways: The Story of Herman Melville and the World We Live In
. Hanover, NH; Dartmouth College; University Press of New England.
Political theorist and cultural critic, novelist and cricket enthusiast, C. L. R. James (1901 - 1989) was a brilliant polymath who has been described by Edward Said as "a centrally important 20th-century figure." Through such landmark works as The Black Jacobins, Beyond a Boundary, and American Civilization, James's thought continues to influence and inspire scholars in a wide variety of fields. "There is little doubt," wrote novelist Caryl Phillips in The New Republic, "that James will come to be regarded as the outstanding Caribbean mind of the twentieth century."

In his seminal work of literary and cultural criticism, Mariners, Renegades and Castaways, James anticipated many of the concerns and ideas that have shaped the contemporary fields of American and Postcolonial Studies, yet this widely influential book has been unavailable in its complete form since its original publication in 1953. A provocative study of Moby Dick in which James challenged the prevailing Americanist interpretation that opposed a "totalitarian" Ahab and a "democratic, American" Ishmael, he offered instead a vision of a factory-like Pequod whose "captain of industry" leads the "mariners, renegades and castaways" of its crew to their doom.

In addition to demonstrating how such an interpretation supported the emerging US national security state, James also related the narrative of Moby Dick, and its resonance in American literary and political culture, to his own persecuted position at the height (or the depth) of the Truman/McCarthy era. It is precisely this personal, deeply original material that was excised from the only subsequent edition. With a new introduction by Donald E. Pease that places the work in its critical and cultural context, Mariners, Renegades and Castaways is once again available in its complete form.

James, Florence Bean and Jean Freeman. (2013). Fists Upon a Star: A Memoir of Love, Theatre, and Escape from Mccarthyism
. Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, University of Regina Press.
Fists Upon a Star is the hard-hitting memoir of Florence James, a pioneering American theatre director, whose devastating experience with McCarthyism led her to flee to Canada.

The memoir is as epic as America itself. Born in 1892 in the frontier society of Idaho, she became a suffragette in New York City, was the first to put Jimmy Cagney on stage, and along with her husband, Burton, founded the Negro Repertory Theater and the nationally recognized Seattle Repertory Playhouse. With star appearances by Woody Guthrie and Helen Hayes, the memoir beautifully illustrates the evolution in her personal life and the development of professional theater during the Great Depression, World War II, and the McCarthy period.

James believed that theatre could offer both an uplifting artistic experience and the tools to advance community development. Her views on art and politics and her choice to stage what some saw as controversial plays led to a clash with the Un-American Activities Committee. After two Kafkaesque trials, a conviction for refusing to follow Committee rules, and being manhandled by police, she fled to Canada.

Written in 1975 with celebrated actress Jean Freeman, James’s memoir sheds light on a fully realized creative life, her love for Burton, and a fascistic strain of American politics that continues to exist today.

James, Henry (1984). Literary Criticism
. New York, N.Y., Literary Classics of the United States: Distributed to the trade in the U.S. and Canada by Viking Press.
Leon Edel and Mark Wilson, editors. 1484 pages. Henry James, renowned as one of the world's great novelists, was also one of the most illuminating, audacious, and masterly critics of modern times. This volume and its companion offer the only comprehensive collection of his critical writings ever assembled, more than one third never before collected in book form. This first volume focuses on his responses to American and English writers. Gathered here are his most important theoretical essays such as "The Art of Fiction" and "The Future of the Novel." Also included are discussions of American writers like Emerson, Edgar Allan Poe, and Harriet Beecher Stowe as well as penetrating assessments of British writers such as Charles Dickens, George Eliot, Thomas Hardy, and many more. Should help to establish James not only as our greatest novelist but also our most comprehensive and original critic. A major publishing event.

Leon Edel and Mark Wilson, editors. Vol.2: European Writers and Prefaces to the New York Edition. A member of intellectual circles on each continent, Henry James became for American readers the foremost interpreter of the literary and cultural life of Europe. This is the second volume of the most extensive collection of his critical writings ever assembled, with many pieces never before available in book form. It includes reviews of a great number of European writers, especially French writers, along with more general essays and the Prefaces James wrote for the New York Edition of his works, published in 1907-1909. James reviews such writers as Honore de Balzac, Gustave Flaubert, Ivan Turgenev, George Sand, and more. The collected Prefaces to the New York Edition of his works are one of literature's most revealing artistic autobiographies."Few talents have ever combined a critical intelligence of this order with such luminous prose." - Boston Globe

James, Henry (1985). Novels 1881-1886
. New York, N.Y., Literary Classics of the United States: Distributed to the trade in the U.S. and Canada by Viking Press.
William T. Stafford, editor. 1249 pages. Three major novels from James's early middle years: Washington Square, The Portrait of a Lady, and The Bostonians. These studies in the exercise of power between the sexes, classes, and cultures portray American women confronting crises of independence and possession. "James beginning to realize the height of his powers."

James, Henry (1989). Novels 1886-1890
. New York, N.Y., Literary Classics of the United States: Distributed to the trade in the U.S. and Canada by the Viking Press.
Daniel Mark Fogel, editor. 1296 pages. The Princess Casamassima, The Reverberator, and The Tragic Muse. These novels explore a late-19th-century world rapidly coming to resemble our own. The Princess Casamassima unfolds in a menacing realm of an assassination plot, wrenching jealousy, and tragic betrayal. The Reverberator, named for a newspaper that caters to Americans' appetite for "society news," is a swiftly paced comic novel. The Tragic Muse studies "the histrionic character" and the sacrifices demanded by a life dedicated to art. "Reminds us of how James can surprise us by speaking directly to our present concerns."

James, Henry (1993). Collected Travel Writings: Great Britain and America
. New York, Literary Classics of the U.S.: Distributed to the trade in the U.S. and Canada by the Viking Press.
Richard Howard, editor. Volume 1: Great Britain and America: English Hours, The American Scene, Other Travels. Observant, imaginative, rich with literary allusions and historical echoes, James's travel writings are both literary masterpieces and unsurpassed guidebooks. This volume and its companion, The Continent, present them complete for the first time. English Hours evokes the varied life of James's adopted home, from the "murky, modern Babylon" of London to the hauntingly desolate Suffolk coast. Joseph Pennell's delightful illustrations are reproduced from the original 1905 edition. In The American Scene, James marvels at the grand American hotel, the privileges of American children, and a modern commercial New York City radically changed since his childhood. Sixteen essays, most previously uncollected, range from early pieces on Saratoga and Newport to articles on World War I that are among his final writings."Unmatched in travel literatureýan incomparable record able to stand with his great novels." - Elizabeth Hardwick

James, Henry (1993). Collected Travel Writings: The Continent
. New York, Literary Classics of the U.S.: Distributed to the trade in the U.S. and Canada by the Viking Press.
From Provence and the Loire Valley, to Rome and Capri, Tuscany and Umbria, James visits all the places still on the traveler's itinerary, capturing radiant impressions of the French countryside, the Norman coast, Florentine masterpieces, and Venetian color and light. Also included are sixteen essays, most previously uncollected, on such varied places as Switzerland, Belgium, and the Pyrenees. Joseph Pennell's exquisite drawings are reproduced from the original editions. This volume and its companion, Great Britain and America, present James's travel writings complete for the first time.

James, Henry (1996). Complete Stories 1892-1898
. New York, Library of America: Distributed to the trade in the U.S. by Penguin Books.
John Hollander, David Bromwich, Denis Donoghue, editors. 948 pages. Including tales of terror and the supernatural, humor, and surprising twists, Henry James's world-famous short stories are his most popular works. Now, for the first time in thirty years, his stories are again available in an authoritative collector's edition, to be published in five volumes. The 21 stories included here represent James at the peak of his storytelling powers and include many of his greatest masterpieces. Among them are "The Turn of the Screw," a terrifying exercise in psychological horror; "The Real Thing," a playful consideration of the illusions of art and the paradoxes of authenticity; "The Altar of the Dead," a wrenching meditation on the relation of the living to the dead; and "The Figure in the Carpet," "The Death of the Lion," and "The Middle Years," three very different expositions of the mysteries of authorship which embody James's most profound insights into the nature of his own art. A companion volume covers the years 1898-1910.

James, Henry (1996). Complete Stories 1898-1910
. New York, Library of America (Firm).
John Hollander, David Bromwich, Denis Donoghue, editors. Now for the first time in thirty years, the world-famous short stories of Henry James are again available in a handsome and authoritative collector's edition, to be published in five volumes. The 31 stories gathered in this volume are the culmination of James's glorious final period. Among them are the extraordinary fantasies "The Great Good Place" and "The Jolly Corner," where haunting hints of the supernatural express undercurrents of yearning and dislocation; "Crapy Cornelia," whose theme of the compelling power of nostalgic memory owes much to James's 1904 return visit to New York City; "The Birthplace," a comic tale about the commercialization of genius; and the masterful "The Beast in the Jungle," a harrowing account of a man's confrontation with lost opportunities.

James, Henry (1999). Complete Stories 1864-1874
. New York, Literary Classics of the United States.
Jean Strouse, editor. With this fifth and final volume of The Library of America's historic new edition, Henry James's world-famous stories are again available in their entirety. Complete Stories 1864-1874 brings together his first 24 published stories, 13 never collected by James. Encompassing a wide range of subjects, settings, and formal techniques, they show the young James equally at ease writing historical tales, such as "Gabrielle de Bergerac," a story of defiant love set in pre-Revolutionary France, or exploring contemporary events, as in three stories that treat the effects of the Civil War on civilians. James very early exhibited his famous psychological acuity, as in "Master Eustace," a study of a spoiled child and his emotional ruthlessness, and "Guest's Confession," where the ferociously comic portrayal of an arrogant businessman hints at the narcissism and sadism that motivate him. Early examples of James's lifelong fascination with art and artists include "A Landscape Painter," which explores a young painter's distorted attraction to a "simple" family living in a desolate coastal town, and "The Madonna of the Future," where an aging artist avoids the unveiling of his masterpiece, prompting an unexpected revelation. Also here are the first explorations of some of James's most significant themes: the force of social convention and the compromises it demands; the complex and often ambiguous encounter between Europe and America; the energies of human passion measured against the rigors of artistic discipline. Adumbrating later triumphs, and compelling in their own right, the stories in this volume reveal a remarkably accomplished and cosmopolitan young talent mastering the art of the short story.

James, Henry (1999). Complete Stories 1874-1884
. New York. Library of America; Distributed to the trade in the United States by Penguin Putnam.
William Vance, editor In more than one hundred stories, Henry James displayed the unwavering intensity of his aesthetic vision--and did so with an astonishing abundance of invention. Now The Library of America is making this body of writing available in its entirety in a new, authoritative edition of James's stories, complete in five volumes.

In the years when he achieved his greatest success as a novelist, Henry James was also contributing stories prolifically to popular magazines. Adventurous in narrative technique, yet marked by precise observation rendered in quicksilver prose, the stories of James's middle period present a breathtaking array of memorable characters and beguiling scenarios.

The nineteen stories in Complete Stories 1874-1884 show James working out, in a more concise fictional laboratory, themes that appear in such novels of the period as The Portrait of a Lady and The Bostonians. They include some of his most famous explorations of the international theme: "Daisy Miller," the unforgettable portrayal of an innocent, headstrong American girl at odds with European mores, "An International Episode" and "Lady Barberina," satirically probing tales of English aristocrats and the American marriage market, and "The Siege of London," in which an American widow strives to work her way into English society. Over half the stories are available in no other edition. Companion volumes cover the years from 1864-1874, 1884-1891, 1892-1898, and 1898-1910.

James, Henry (1999). Complete Stories 1884-1891
. New York, Library of America.
Edward Said, editor. Sometimes overshadowed by his work as a novelist, James's short fiction is an astonishing achievement, a triumph of inventiveness and restless curiosity. Now The Library of America is making this body of writing available in its entirety in a new, authoritative edition of James's stories, complete in five volumes. The seventeen stories collected in Complete Stories: 1884-1891 include some of the writer's greatest masterpieces."The Aspern Papers" is a stunning novella about emotional ruthlessness in the service of literary scholarship."The Pupil" is a dense, suggestive account of the moral perplexities in the relationship between an impoverished tutor and a young invalid. "The Lesson of the Master" is an intricate study of ambition, disappointment, and the demands of a life devoted to art."Brooksmith" is a moving portrait of a house servant, and "Sir Edmund Orme" an enthralling ghost story. Throughout, James wittily limns the demands and hidden struggles of social life, and hones his genius for the unexpected resolution and brilliantly framed portrait. More than half the stories are available in no other edition.

James, Henry (2003). Novels 1896-1899
. New York, Library of America.
This volume collects four novels written by Henry James in the period immediately following his unsuccessful five-year-long attempt to establish himself as a playwright on the London stage. Hoping to convert his "infinite little loss" into "infinite little gain," James returned to the novelistic examination of English society with a new appreciation for what he called the "divine principle of the Scenario," "a key that, working in the same general way fits the complicated chambers of both the dramatic and the narrative lock."

His continued interest in dramatic form is demonstrated in The Other House (1896), which was derived from the scenario for a three-act play. Set in two neighboring houses and told mostly through dialogue, the novel explores the violent and tragic consequences of jealousy and frustrated passion. In The Spoils of Poynton (1897), one of the most tightly constructed of James's late novels, a house and its exquisite antique furnishings and artwork become the source of a protracted struggle involving the proud and imperious Mrs. Gereth, her amiable son, Owen, his philistine fiancee, Mona Brigstock, and the sensitive Fleda Vetch, whose moral judgment is tested by her conflicting allegiances.

What Maisie Knew (1897) explores with perception and sensitivity the effect upon a young girl of her parents' bitter divorce and their subsequent remarriages. In writing the novel James chose as his point of view what he described as "the consciousness, the dim, sweet, scared, wondering, clinging perception of the child." The Awkward Age (1899) examines the complicated relations among the members of a sophisticated London social circle almost entirely through dialogue as it depicts the shifting marital prospects of a young woman poised on the verge of adult life. Both of these novels insightfully explore the ambiguity of childhood "innocence" amid adult struggles over money, power, and love.

Myra Jehlen, editor, is Board of Governors Professor of Literatures at Rutgers University. She is the author of American Incarnation: The Individual, the Nation, and the Continent (1986) and Readings at the Edge of Literature (2002).

James, Henry and William T. Stafford (1983). Novels1871-1880
. New York, N.Y., Literary Classics of the United States: Distributed by Viking Press.
William T. Stafford, editor. The first volume in what will eventually be a complete James presents five early novels filled with sparkling dialogue, masterfully timed suspense, and the romance of youthful and artistic aspiration: Watch and Ward, Roderick Hudson, The American, The Europeans, and Confidence. They appear in their original early versions, without the revisions James added in his later years, revealing his true early style-both in its occasional naïvete and its remarkable sharpness of observation.

James, William (1990). The Principles of Psychology
. Chicago, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
William James's The Principles of Psychology is widely considered to be the most important text in the history of modern psychology. Twelve years in the writing, The Principles was, and in many ways still is, a document unique in the history of human thought. It's author was not only completely conversant with the psychological literature in English, but with that in French, German, and Italian; and, as a result, The Principles presented the discipline for the first time as a truly international endeavor. James was also an artist, with the artist's eye for shading and detail, and one of the English language's truly great prose stylists. In The Principles these characteristics combined to yield some of the richest descriptions of human experience, human behavior, and human nature ever to appear in a work of non-fiction.

As a psychologist, James was as interested in and knowledgeable about the phenomena of psychopathology and exceptional mental states as he was in those of normal consciousness; and in The Principles he drew constantly from this material to enrich his analyses. Trained as a biologist and a physician, James felt compelled to ground his psychology wherever possible in the facts of nervous physiology; but he was also at heart a philosopher concerned with issues such as the problem of other minds, the relationship of mind to body, the continuity of self, the mechanism of objective reference, and the nature of necessary truths. In The Principles, both of these orientations were manifest, as James moved effortlessly back and forth from one level of analysis to another.

More important than any of these characteristics for the claim of James's text to uniqueness and for its extraordinary and continuing influence was the exceptionally innovative way in which the subject matter of psychology was approached. The more traditional topics (e.g., the functions of the nervous system, sensation, the perception of time, space, objects, and reality, imagination, conception, reasoning, memory, association, attention, emotions, and will) were rarely dealt with in a traditional manner; and a whole series of non-traditional topics (e.g., habit, the stream of thought, consciousness of self, discrimination and comparison, the production of movement, instinct, and hypnotism) were introduced in ways that forever changed the discipline.

Not surprisingly The Principles can still be read in its entirety with great profit. Of all James's contributions, however, there are three for which he has been especially famous in the history of psychology: his analysis of the stream of thought, his characterization of the self, and his theory of emotion. Each of these will be briefly described; but it should be kept in mind that, with James, there is no substitute for reading the original.

James's analysis of the stream of thought was first published in an article in Mind, entitled 'On some omissions of introspective psychology.' As it appeared in edited form in The Principles, it consisted of a number of components. Three of these, all of which flowed directly from James's recognition that psychology had traditionally attributed to thought a characteristic true only of the objects of thought(viz., analyzability into discrete elements), will be addressed here.

The first of these components was an attack on the idea that sensations constituted the fundamental elements of consciousness. Sensation, James argued, was an abstraction from not a fact of experience. 'No one,' he wrote, 'ever had a simple sensation by itself. Consciousness, from our natal day, is of a teeming multiplicity of objects and relations, and what we call simple sensations are results of discriminative attention, pushed often to a very high degree.'

The two remaining components emphasized change and continuity in thought. For James, thought contained no constant elements of any kind, be they sensations or ideas. Every perception was relative and contextualized, every thought occurred in a mind modified by every previous thought. States of mind were never repeated. Objects might be constant and discrete, but thought was constantly changing and sensibly continuous. 'Consciousness,' he wrote, 'does not appear to itself chopped up in bits. Such words as 'chain' or 'train' do not describe it fitly as it presents itself in the first instance. It is nothing jointed; it flows. A 'river' or 'stream' are the metaphors by which it is most naturally described.'

James's chapter on the self introduced numerous self-related concepts and distinctions into psychology. The phenomenal self (the experienced self, the 'me' self, the self as known) was distinguished from the self thought (the I-self, the self as knower). 'Personality,' he wrote, 'implies the incessant presence of two elements, an objective person, known by a passing subjective Thought and recognized as continuing in time. Hereafter let us use the words ME and I for the empirical person and the judging Thought.'

In discussing the me-self, James wrote of three different but interrelated aspects of self: the material self (all those aspects of material existence in which we feel a strong sense of ownership, our bodies, our families, our possessions), the social self (our felt social relations), and the spiritual self (our feelings of our own subjectivity). These aspects were then treated in terms of relevant feelings of self-worth and self-seeking actions; and in the course of this analysis, James made three major contributions to self theory. He articulated the principle of multiplicity of social selves ('a man has as many social selves as there are individuals who recognize him and carry an image of him in their mind'), defined self-esteem in terms of the ratio of successes to pretensions, arguing that self-esteem can be as easily increased by lowering aspirations as by increasing successes, and distinguished ideal selves from real selves ('In each kind of self, material, social, and spiritual men distinguish between the immediate and actual, and the remote and potential.').

In addressing the I-self, James turned first to the feeling of self identity, the experience that 'I am the same self that I was yesterday,' pointing out that 'the sense of our own personal identity is exactly like any one of our other perceptions of sameness among phenomena.' He then proceeded to review the classical (spiritualist, associationist, and transcendentalist) theories of personal identity and concluded with an extremely important discussion of the phenomena and implications of multiple personality. In this last especially, we see James in his element, struggling with the nature of the most complex manifestations of the self.

Finally, James's chapter on the emotions, revised from an 1884 paper, presented his famous theory of emotion. The chapter began with a clear recognition of the close relationship between action and the expressive and physiological concomitants of emotion 'Objects of rage, love, fear, etc.,' he wrote, 'not only prompt a man to outward deeds, but provoke characteristic alterations in his attitude and visage, and affect his breathing, circulation, and other organic functions in specific ways.' Here James also made it clear that emotion could be as easily triggered by memory or imagination as by direct perception of an emotion producing event. As he phrased it, 'One may get angrier in thinking over one's insult than at the moment of receiving it.'

In what was to become known as the James-Lange theory of emotion, James then went on the argue that emotion consists of our experience of these bodily changes. As he put it, 'My theory is that the bodily changes follow directly the perception of the exciting fact, and that our feeling of the same changes as they occur is the emotion we feel, sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble, and not that we cry, strike, or tremble, because we are sorry, angry, or fearful, as the case may be.' Although James may have been a bit overstrong in equating emotion with experience of bodily change (and in other sections of the chapter made claims in relation to the neural basis of emotion that have not been supported), his description of the nature of emotion anticipated much of what is commonly held by modern theorists to be characteristic of emotion: the presence of an external or internal precipitating event, physiological change, expressive movement, and a characteristic affective experience.

It is impossible in brief to summarize the many ways in which James's Principles, read and assimilated by those coming to academic maturity in the decades following its publication, altered the course of development of the newly emerging scientific psychology. James's views, especially those on the stream of consciousness, played a major role in shifting psychology away from elementalism toward a functional, process oriented account of mind (and eventually behavior). James's concern with emotion, motivation, and the nature of the self, the social self, and self-esteem, not only lay the groundwork for dynamic psychology, but for a dynamic psychology that recognized the importance of social factors in personality. And James's deep and abiding concern with exceptional mental states helped legitimize an emerging, indigenous American psychotherapy and pave the way for the eventual acceptance of psychoanalysis within psychology.

James, William and Elizabeth Hardwick (1980). The Selected Letters of William James
. Boston, D.R. Godine. Dating from his eighteenth year (1860) until the year of his death (1910), The Selected Letters of William James offers a very intimate look at the man, with insights into his personality and intellectual development that no biography can convey.

Jamieson, John (2009). Seamanship Secrets: 185 Tips & Techniques for Better Navigation, Cruise Planning, and Boat Handling under Power and Sail
. Camden, ME, International Marine/McGraw-Hill. Secrets is the modern Bowditch, written so clearly that navigation and seamanship will be comprehensible to anyone. The nautical tips and techniques presented are encyclopedic, yet its lucid explanations demystify the topics.

Jasper, James M. (1997). The Art of Moral Protest: Culture, Biography, and Creativity in Social Movements
. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
This book offers a provocative perspective on the cultural implications of political and social protest. Sociology professor Jasper has already written on the antinuclear and animal-rights protest movements. In this more ambitious work, he surveys the relevant social science literature and finds that scholars are all too often unaware of or unconcerned with the creative, subjective side of protest activity, focusing instead on structural explanations that discount the consciousness of the individuals involved. James asks, "Why do our thoughts about the world lead us so often to want to change it? What moral visions inspire outrage about often-distant practices and institutions?" Drawing on research and personal observation, he discusses the dynamics underlying a number of different social movements. Concluding that protest is a "necessity," James argues that the "gift of protesters is that they create controversy, which leads to the weighting and testing of perspectives and values." The extensive notes and bibliography attests to Jasper's deep immersion in his topic.

Jaspers, Karl (1974). Anaximander, Heraclitus, Parmenides, Plotinus, Lao-Tzu, Nagarjuna
. New York, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Concerned with the original metaphysicians, men who created a closed system of thoght out of their individual visions. These include the Pre-Socratic Anaximander, Heraclitus, and Parmenides; Plotinus, who flourished in third-century Rome: the Chinese philosopher Lao-tzu, creator of the basic text of Taoism, and the Indian Nagarjuna, one of the great Buddhist thinkers; Anselm of Canterbury and Nicholas of Cusa, churchmen whho within the framework of orthodoxy were able to philosophize with striking originality; and Spinoza, a pure metaphysician like Plotinus, who developed his system of thought outside of ecclesiastical religion.

Jay, Martin (1984). Adorno
. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press.

Jay, Martin (1996). The Dialectical Imagination: A History of the Frankfurt School and the Institute of Social Research, 1923-1950
. Berkeley, University of California Press.
Herbert Marcuse, Erich Fromm, Max Horkheimer, Franz Neumann, Theodor Adorno, Leo Lowenthal - the impact of the Frankfurt School on the sociological, political, and cultural thought of the twentieth century has been profound. The Dialectical Imagination is a major history of this monumental cultural and intellectual enterprise during its early years in Germany and in the United States. Martin Jay has provided a substantial new preface for this edition, in which he reflects on the continuing relevance of the work of the Frankfurt School.

Jeffers, Robinson and Tim Hunt (1988). The Collected Poetry of Robinson Jeffers
. Stanford, Calif., Stanford University Press.
Vol 1, The Collected Poetry of Robinson Jeffers, 1920-1928: The contemporary of Pound and Eliot, Jeffers conscientiously chose not to go the route of "modernism." This single decision determines not only the structure and themes of his poetry but how we read it. Both scientific and religious, Jeffers's vision is rooted in naturecoupled with his antimodernist stance was the choice to flee the city for beautiful Carmel and Big Sur. Today the poetry stands isolated, at times grand, and somewhat forgotten. This first effort to publish the complete poems affords the reader not only the pleasure of Jeffers's engaging style and iconoclastic subjects but also a rich matrix for studying an alternative to what has now become the modernist tradition.

Vol. 2, The Collected Poetry of Robinson Jeffers, 1928-1938: This second volume in the series contains both major and minor works. Of last year's kick-off volume, LJ 's reviewer said, "This first effort to publish the complete poems affords the reader not only the pleasure of Jeffers's engaging style and iconoclastic subjects but also a rich matrix for studying an alternative to what has now become the modernist tradition."

Vol. 3, The Collected Poetry of Robinson Jeffers: 1939-1962: Poems consists of poems written from 1939 to Jeffers' death in 1962, including the dramatic poems The Bowl of Blood, Medea, and The Cretan Woman; nine short poems that were part of the original manuscript of The Double Axe but were eventually omitted for reasons that are unclear; and those poems from his last years, which appeared posthumously in The Beginning and the End, that seem to be completed drafts.

Vol 4, The Collected Poetry of Robinson Jeffers: Poetry 1903-1920, Prose, and Unpublished Writings: This book, the fourth of a five volume set, is in three parts. "Poetry 1903-1920" consists of some of the poems published while Jeffers was a college student, two early collections (Flagons and Apples and Californians), and a number of poems that were never published or were recently rediscovered. "Introductions, Forewords, and Miscellaneous Prose, 1920-1948" gathers all the major prose works. "Unpublished Poems and Fragments, 1910-1962" is mostly material that Jeffers never published, and apparently never tried to publish. The fifth volume in the edition will consist of commentary containing various procedural explanations and textual evidence for the texts presented in the edition, as well as transcriptions of working notes for the poems and of alternate and discarded passages. The Collected Poetry is designed by Adrian Wilson.

Vol.5, The Collected Poetry of Robinson Jeffers: Volume Five Textual Evidence and Commentary: This final volume of the first comprehensive edition of all of Robinson Jeffers's completed poems, both published and unpublished, consists of commentary: various procedural explanations and textual evidence for the edition's texts, transcriptions of working notes for the poems and of alternate and discarded passages, a chronology of Jeffers's career, appendixes, and indexes.

Jeffers, Robinson and Robinson Jeffers (1970). Cawdor, a Long Poem. Medea, after Euripides
. New York, New Directions Pub. Corp.
Two major works by Robinson Jeffers (1887-1962).

The verse narrative Cawdor, set on the ruthless California coast which Jeffers knew so well, tells a simple tale: an aging widower, Cawdor, unwilling to relinquish his youth, knowingly marries a young girl who does not love him. She falls in love with his son, Hood, and the narrative unfolds in tragedy of immense proportions.

Medea is a verse adaptation of Euripides' drama and was created especially for the actress Juthith Anderson. Their combined genius made the play one of the outstanding successes of the 1940's. In Medea, Jeffers relentlessly drove toward what Ralph Waldo Emerson had called "the proper tragic element" - terror.

Cawdor and Medea embody Jeffers' most compelling themes and moods and convey his philosophy of "Inhumanism."

Jefferson, Thomas and Merrill D. Peterson (1984). Writings
. New York, N.Y., Literary Classics of the U.S.: Distributed to the trade in the U.S. and Canada by the Viking Press.
The most comprehensive one-volume selection of Jefferson ever published. Contains the Autobiography, Notes on the State of Virginia, public and private papers, including the original and revised drafts of the Declaration of Independence, addresses, and 287 letters.

Jeffrey, Ian (1981). Photography: A Concise History
. New York, Oxford University Press.
This book answers the need for a concise general history of photography which has a critical rather than a technical slant. What is importnt about certain photographs and photographers? What are the criteria for evaluating photographs? Why do certain pictures deserve our attention or merit preservation? What is the particular nature of photographic vision? How do we reconcile the nature of the photographic medium, inherently involved with time, accident and 'reality', and the pre-occupation of art with form, permanence and essence?

Jensen, Derrick (2004). Listening to the Land: Conversations About Nature, Culture, and Eros
. White River Junction, Vt., Chelsea Green Pub. Co.
In this far-ranging and heartening collection, Derrick Jensen gathers conversations with environmentalists, theologians, Native Americans, psychologists, and feminists, engaging some of our best minds in an exploration of more peaceful ways to live on Earth. Included here is Dave Foreman on biodiversity, Matthew Fox on Christianity and nature, Jerry Mander on technology, and Terry Tempest Williams on an erotic connection to the land. With intelligence and compassion, Listening to the Land moves from a look at the condition of the environment and the health of our spirit to a beautiful evocation of eros and a life based on love.

Jensen, Derrick (2006). Endgame
. New York, Seven Stories Press.
The companion piece to Derrick Jensen's immensely popular and highly acclaimed works A Language Older Than Words and The Culture of Make Believe, Endgame stands to become Jensen's most influential book. Building on a series of simple but increasingly provocative premises, Jensen leaves us hoping for what may be inevitable: a return to agrarian communal life via the disintegration of civilization itself.

Jerome, Fred and Fred Jerome (2002). The Einstein File: J. Edgar Hoover's Secret War against the World's Most Famous Scientist
. New York, St. Martin's Press.
From the moment of Einstein's arrival in the U.S. in 1933 until his death in l955, J. Edgar Hoover's FBI, with help from several other federal agencies, busied itself collecting "derogatory information" in an effort to undermine Einstein's influence and destroy his prestige. For the first time Fred Jerome tells the story of that anti-Einstein campaign, as well as the story behind it--why and how the campaign originated, and thereby provides the first detailed picture of Einstein's little known political activism.

Unlike the popular image of Einstein as an absent-minded, head-in-the-clouds genius, the man was in fact intensely politically active and felt it was his duty to use his world-wide fame shrewdly in the cause of social justice. A passionate pacifist, socialist, internationalist and outspoken critic of racism (Einstein considered racism America's "worst disease"), and personal friend of Paul Robeson and W.E.B. DuBois, Einstein used his immense prestige to denounce McCarthy at the height of his power, publicly urging witnesses to refuse to testify before HUAC.

The story that emerges not only reveals a little known aspect of Einstein's character, but underscores the dangers that can arise, to threaten the American Republic and the rule of law, in times of obsession with national security.

Jerome, Judson (1979). The Poet and the Poem
. Cincinnati, Writer's Digest Books.

Jewett, Sarah Orne (1994). Novels and Stories
. New York, Library of America: Distributed to the trade in the U.S. by Penguin Books.
Michael Davitt Bell, editor. 937 pages. All of Jewett's best fiction, including her three novels, Deephaven, A Country Doctor, and The Country of the Pointed Firs, and 28 funny, satirical, and poignant stories and sketches. Set against long Maine winters, hard-scrabble farms, and the sea, Jewett's stories of gruff, capable farmers and seafolk - and of the rewards and trials of family and communal ties - have a very modern resonance. This comprehensive collection reveals the full stature of the unjustly neglected writer Willa Cather ranked with Mark Twain and Nathaniel Hawthorne. "An incandescence of humanity and descriptions so sharply etched you want to put them in your pocket like magic pebbles."

Jobson, Gary, American Sailing Association., et al. (1998). Sailing Fundamentals: The Official Learn-to-Sail Manual of the American Sailing Association and the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary
. New York, Simon and Schuster.
Written by America's foremost instructional authority, the new edition of Sailing Fundamentals combines the training programs of the American Sailing Association and the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary. The official learn-to-sail manual of the American Sailing Association, it is also used in the programs of many yacht clubs, colleges, and sailing groups. Unlike most introductory sailing books, which reflect the biases and idiosyncrasies of their authors, Sailing Fundamentals has been extensively pretested by ASA professional instructors to ensure that it offers the fastest, easiest, most systematic way to learn basic sailing and basic coastal cruising. This book covers every aspect of beginning sailing -- from hoisting sail to docking and anchoring -- and specifically prepares the learner to qualify for sailing certification according to international standards. Widely acclaimed author Gary Jobson has won several major races, including the 1977 America's Cup victory as tactician aboard Courageous. He was head sailing coach at the U.S. Naval Academy, and has conducted sailing clinics across the country. Illustrated step-by-step in two colors with over 150 line drawings and photographs.

Jodorowsky, Alejandro and Moebius (2001). The Incal
. Hollywood, CA, Humanoids Pub.
The Sci-Fi masterpiece by Moebius and Jodorowsky about the tribulations of the shabby detective John Difool as he searches for the precious and coveted Incal. This is the latest edition of the previously sold-out hardcover versions. Presented in its original colors. Foreword by Brian Michael Bendis.

Johanningsmeier, Edward P. (1994). Forging American Communism: The Life of William Z. Foster
. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press.
A major figure in the history of twentieth-century American radicalism, William Z. Foster (1881-1961) fought his way out of the slums of turn-of-the-century Philadelphia to become a professional revolutionary as well as a notorious and feared labor agitator. Drawing on private family papers, FBI files, and recently opened Russian archives, this first full-scale biography traces Foster's early life as a world traveler, railroad worker, seaman, hobo, union activist, and radical journalist, and also probes the origins and implications of his ill-fated career as a top-echelon Communist official and three-time presidential candidate. Even though Foster's long and eventful life ended in Moscow, where he was given a state funeral in Red Square, he was, as portrayed here, a thoroughly American radical.

The book not only reveals the circumstances of Foster's poverty-stricken childhood in Philadelphia, but also vividly describes his work and travels in the American West. Also included are fascinating accounts of his early political career as a Socialist, 'Wobbly,' and anarcho-syndicalist, and of his activities as the architect of giant organizing campaigns by the American Federation of Labor, involving hundreds of thousands of workers in the meatpacking and steel industries. The author views Foster's influence in the American Communist movement from the perspective of the history of American labor and unionism, but he also offers a realistic assessment of Foster's career in light of factional intrigues at the highest levels of the Communist International.

Johnsen, Gregory D. (2012). The Last Refuge: Yemen, Al-Qaeda, and America's War in Arabia
. New York, W.W. Norton & Co.
Charts the rise, fall, and resurrection of al-Qaeda in Yemen over the last thirty years, detailing how a group that the United States once defeated has now become one of the world's most dangerous threats. An expert on Yemen who has spent years on the ground there, Gregory D. Johnsen uses al-Qaeda's Arabic battle notes to reconstruct their world as they take aim at the United States and its allies.

Johnson, Chalmers (2004). Blowback: The Costs and Consequences of American Empire, 2nd Edition
. New York, Henry Holt.
The term "blowback," invented by the CIA, refers to the unintended results of American actions abroad. In this incisive and controversial book, Chalmers Johnson lays out in vivid detail the dangers faced by our overextended empire, which insists on projecting its military power to every corner of the earth and using American capital and markets to force global economic integration on its own terms. From a case of rape by U.S. servicemen in Okinawa to our role in Asia's financial crisis, from our early support for Saddam Hussein to our conduct in the Balkans, Johnson reveals the ways in which our misguided policies are planting the seeds of future disaster. In this updated second edition, recent international events from September 11 to the war in Iraq are also covered.

Johnson, Chalmers (2006). Nemesis: The Last Days of the American Republic
. New York, Metropolitan Books.
In Blowback, Chalmers Johnson linked the CIA's clandestine activities abroad to disaster at home. In The Sorrows of Empire, he explored the ways in which the growth of American militarism has jeopardized our stability. Now, in Nemesis, he shows how imperial overstretch is undermining the republic itself, both economically and politically. Delving into new areas - from plans to militarize outer space to Constitution-breaking presidential activities at home and the corruption of a toothless Congress - Nemesis offers a description of the trap into which the dreams of America's leaders have taken us. Drawing comparisons to empires past, Johnson explores just what the unintended consequences of our dependence on a permanent war economy are likely to be. What does it mean when the globe's sole "hyperpower," no longer capable of paying for the ambitions of its leaders, becomes the greatest hyper-debtor of all times?

Johnson, Chalmers (2004). The Sorrows of Empire: Militarism, Secrecy, and the End of the Republic.
. New York, Metropolitan Books.
The Department of Defense currently lists 725 official U.S. military bases outside of the country and 969 within the 50 states (not to mention numerous secret bases). According to Johnson, these bases are proof that the United States prefers to deal with other nations through the use or threat of force rather than negotiations, commerce, or cultural interaction. This rise of American militarism, along with the corresponding layers of bureaucracy and secrecy that are created to circumvent scrutiny, signals a shift in power from the populace to the Pentagon: "A revolution would be required to bring the Pentagon back under democratic control," he writes. In Sorrows of Empire, Johnson discusses the roots of American militarism, the rise and extent of the military-industrial complex, and the close ties between arms industry executives and high-level politicians. He also looks closely at how the military has extended the boundaries of what constitutes national security in order to centralize intelligence agencies under their control and how statesmen have been replaced by career soldiers on the front lines of foreign policy - a shift that naturally increases the frequency with which we go to war.

Johnson, Denis (2007). Tree of Smoke
. New York, Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
To write a fat novel about the Vietnam War nearly 35 years after it ended is an act of literary bravado. To do so as brilliantly as Denis Johnson has in Tree of Smoke is positively a miracle.

This novel makes large demands on the reader: to submit to its length, to its disorienting language and structure, to the elusive and shattering experience of its characters, and finally to its sheer ambition to be definitive for the Vietnam generation. It is a presumptuous book, in other words, and you may will resist for the first several hundred pages. But it will grab you eventually, and get inside your head like the war it is describing - mystifying, horrifying, mesmerizing. Johnson, a poet, ex-junkie and adventure journalist, has written a book that by the end wraps around you as tightly as a jungle snake.

Johnson's story revolves around a CIA officer named William "Skip" Sands, who goes to Vietnam in 1967 as part of a team that is running deception operations against North Vietnam. His boss is his uncle, Col. Francis Xavier Sands, a legendary counter-insurgency warrior known to everyone as "the Colonel," and it is the Colonel who hovers over the book like a demon. He is meant to be a mythic character at the heart of darkness -- with a hint of the fictional Kurtz in Conrad's novel and echoes of the real-life Col. Edward Lansdale, the architect of counter-insurgency doctrine in Vietnam.

The black operation that Skip and the Colonel are running is known as "Tree of Smoke." As the novel unfolds, we discover that this may be an attempt to use a Vietnamese double agent to deceive Hanoi into believing that the United States is planning a diabolical attack against the North -- and that the "tree of smoke" may be a mushroom cloud. Johnson includes some interesting tradecraft about running double agents, who as Skip Sands observes, "carry two souls in one body." But the spy-novel machinations are just a subplot. The tree of smoke is the unreal landscape of the war itself.

Fans will recognize Johnson's voice most clearly in Cpl. James Houston and the other soldiers from Echo Recon Platoon, whose nightmarish experiences are woven throughout the book. They are magnificently drawn, their dialogue so sharp and desperate that you are certain this is how soldiers really talked in Vietnam in 1967. Johnson invents a language for them -- a kind of non-stop junkie patter that continues unbroken from the "Floor Show" whorehouse to Echo base camp to bloody battles in the jungle. Like the soldiers in Michael Herr's memoir, Dispatches, Houston becomes a "Lurp," running Long Range Reconnaissance Patrols, which puts him at the most extreme and brutal end of the war. And he loves it, re-ups for another tour, is despondent when he has to go home to Phoenix and become an ordinary loser again. He is addicted to Vietnam, you finally realize. He can't make it anymore in the ordinary world.

This is war as hallucination. It's a story of the decomposition and degradation of the characters and, by implication, Vietnam. A relief worker named Kathy Jones, who is in love with Skip and is in many ways the moral center of the book, warns him that in Vietnam he will ask himself, "When did I die? And why is God's punishment so cruel?" Several hundred pages later, the narrator says, "The life had worn her down," and we see and feel Kathy coming apart. But most of all we see Skip unraveling. He begins the book as an earnest young man who believes all the CIA briefing books; by the end he is a wild outcast running guns in Southeast Asia."I quit working for the giant-size criminals," he says, "and started working for the medium size. Lousy hours and no fringe benefits, but the ethics are clearer."

The Vietnamese here are timeless, features of a landscape against which the American characters batter themselves senseless."There's an old saying: The anvil outlasts the hammer," explains one Vietnamese character."These folks mean business," avers the Colonel. "You whack them down in January, they're back all bright and shiny next May, ready for more of our terrible abuse." They take the beating America inflicts, but they seem impervious to it.

By the end of the book, the major characters are all broken by their versions of Vietnam addiction."This place is Disneyland on acid," says Sgt. Jimmy Storm, a particularly sadistic operative who is convinced that the Colonel is on the ultimate deception mission when he is actually dead. Before Skip spins out of control, he offers this verdict: "This isn't a war. It's a disease. A plague." That is one of the most powerful themes of the book: Vietnam fed a national craving. We couldn't get out, we couldn't stay in; the war was controlling us rather than the other way around.

Johnson's skill in rendering the dialect of war was earned the hard way -- during the years in which he was, by his own account, a drug addict. He distilled that time in his celebrated collection of short stories, Jesus' Son. He told an interviewer from San Francisco Weekly several years ago that he still liked to go to support meetings and listen to other recovering addicts tell their stories: "I feel very privileged to hear how somebody used to run around stickin' people up and stealing cars, and now they're gettin' their life back together. . . . I just love the stories. The stories of the fallen world, they excite us. That's the interesting stuff." He has used that affinity to capture the rhythms of speech and the mental landscape of the enlisted men who did the fighting.

As a serious war novel, Tree of Smoke is implicitly a story about all wars. And a reader cannot travel this journey without thinking about America's current war in Iraq. Officers and politicians speak of the nobility of this war, as they do of all wars. But when you talk to soldiers in Baghdad or Anbar, you know that it is about surviving, counting down the days, believing in the people on your left and right rather than in the loftier mission statements that emanate from the Green Zone. And those are the lucky soldiers who stay sane. For the vulnerable ones, war takes away these human instincts of survival and replaces them with crazy ones. At the beginning of Tree of Smoke, Cpl. Houston admits that he's scared to death; by the end, he loves kicking other people and being kicked himself.

Something similar must have happened with the mercifully few U.S. soldiers who were involved in America's worst moments in Iraq -- at Abu Ghraib, Haditha and other places we will hear about later. They were damaged people -- addicted to war, feeding on it in a frenzy, being made crazy by it.

President Bush caused a stir not long ago when he said that Iraq was like Vietnam. An incontrovertible statement, surely: We can't get out of Iraq, we can't stay in; the Sunni insurgents who were our biggest enemies are now our best friends; the Shiites for whom we fought the war of liberation are now obstacles to reconciliation. It's a war turned upside down. If we could hear the inner voices of soldiers in Ramadi and Baqubah, behind those wraparound shades they would be thinking about coming home. The decent ones, that is. Those corrupted by war would want to stay on forever, as do Johnson's unforgettable, war-deranged cast of characters. - Reviewed by David Ignatius, The Washington Post

Johnson, Kim (1999). The First 28 Years of Monty Python
. New York, St. Martin's Griffin.
The ultimate guide for Python fans is back, newly revised for the nineties. The years since the publication of the first edition have brought a great deal of change for the Python alumni-most notably most celebrated postgraduate successes: A Fish Called Wanda, The Fisher King, 12 Monkeys, and Disney's Mr. Toad's Wild Ride.

This revised edition also contains all of the original material (dead parrots, fish-slapping, silly walks, Knights Who Say Ni, etc.) that made the first edition such a success. The First 28 Years of Monty Python celebrates the group's career with exclusive interviews, rare photographs, and an episode guide detailing the original TV shows. It's a must-have item for any Python fan.

Johnston, David Cay (2012). Fine Print, The: How Big Companies Use 'Plain English' to Rob You Blind
. New York, Portfolio.
No other modern country gives corporations the unfettered power found in America to gouge customers, shortchange workers, and erect barriers to fair play. A big reason is that so little of the news . . . addresses the private, government-approved mechanisms by which price gouging is employed to redistribute income upward. You are being systematically exploited by powerful corporations every day. These companies squeeze their trusting customers for every last cent, risk their retirement funds, and endanger their lives. And they do it all legally. How? It's all in The Fine Print.

Johnston, David Cay (2008). Free Lunch: How the Wealthiest Americans Enrich Themselves at Government Expense (and Stick You with the Bill)
. New York, Portfolio.
How does a strong and growing economy lend itself to job uncertainty, debt, bankruptcy, and economic fear for a vast number of Americans? Free Lunch provides answers to this great economic mystery of our time, revealing how today's government policies and spending reach deep into the wallets of the many for the benefit of the wealthy few.

Johnston cuts through the official version of events and shows how, under the guise of deregulation, a whole new set of regulations quietly went into effect - regulations that thwart competition, depress wages, and reward misconduct. From how George W. Bush got rich off a tax increase to a $100 million taxpayer gift to Warren Buffett, Johnston puts a face on all of the dirty little tricks that business and government pull. A lot of people appear to be getting free lunches - but of course there's no such thing as a free lunch, and someone (you, the taxpayer) is picking up the bill.

Johnston, David Cay (2016). The Making of Donald Trump
. New York, Random House.
Covering the long arc of Trump's career, Johnston tells the full story of how a boy from a quiet section of Queens, New York, would become an entirely new, and complex, breed of public figure. Trump is a man of great media savvy, entrepreneurial spirit, and political clout. Yet his career has been plagued by legal troubles and mounting controversy.

From the origins of his family's real estate fortune, to his own too-big-to-fail business empire; from his education and early career, to his whirlwind presidential bid, The Making of Donald Trump provides the fullest picture yet of Trump's extraordinary ascendency. Trump's massive influence is undeniable, and figures as diverse as Woody Guthrie (who wrote a scathing song about Trump's father) and Red Scare prosecutor Roy Cohn, mob bosses and high rollers, as well as the average American voter, have all been pulled into his orbit.

Johnston, David Cay (2003). Perfectly Legal: The Covert Campaign to Rig Our Tax System to Benefit the Super Rich and Cheat Everybody Else
. New York, Portfolio.
Since he began writing about taxes for the New York Times in 1995, Johnston's investigative reporting has earned two Pulitzers. The journalistic legwork informs every page of this expos‚ of the ways in which, he says, America's taxation system is stacked in favor of the wealthy. Johnston evades the imposing abstractness of the tax code by keeping the story focused on individuals, from working-class parents facing audits to Internal Revenue Service officials desperate for the resources to revamp their procedures. Chapters addressing the inability of the IRS to go after the worst tax cheats, thanks in part to opposition from grandstanding members of Congress, are particularly effective in putting a spotlight on the problem, but there's plenty of space given to revealing how canny tax attorneys come up with legal (and barely legal) ways to get around the system. And for those who can afford it, he reports, there's always a new dodge available once the law has caught up to the latest tricks. At some points, dealing with numbers becomes unavoidable, but even here Johnston displays a knack for breaking the story down into easily grasped components. Though the tax cuts engineered by Presidents Reagan and George W. Bush receive most of the criticism, Democrats come in for their fair share of opprobrium. Genuine reform, he suggests, will require serious and sustained attention from the public, not just reflexive griping. His book is a thoughtful overview for any citizens willing to educate themselves on the issue.

Johnstone, Diana (2015). Queen of Chaos: The Misadventures of Hillary Clinton
. Petrolia, Calif., CounterPunch.
Veteran journalist Diana Johnstone captures the imperial worldview of Hillary Clinton in memorable detail. Hillary the Hawk, as U.S. Senator and Secretary of State, never saw a weapons systems she did not support nor a U.S. war practice she did not endorse. This included her hyper-aggressive launch of the war on Libya (against the opposition of Secretary of Defense Robert Gates) and the resulting sprawling chaos, violence and weapons dispersal spilling beyond Libya's war-torn society to larger regions of central Africa. Johnstone documents Hillary Clinton as 'the top salesperson for the ruling oligarchy' and 'the favorite candidate of the War Party.' --Ralph Nader

Jones, Ernest (1961). The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud
. New York, Basic Books.
"The task of compiling a biography of Freud's life is a dauntingly stupendous one. The data are so extensive that only a selection of them--though it is to be hoped a representative one--can be presented; there will remain ample room for more intensive studies of particular phases in his development. The reasons why I nevertheless yielded to the suggestion that I should undertake it were the considerations pressed on me that I was the only survivor of a small circle of co-workers (the "Committee") in constant intimate contact with Freud, that I had been a close friend for forty years and also during that period had played a central part in what has been called the "psychoanalytical movement." My having passed through the identical disciplines as Freud on the way to psychoanalysis--philosophy, neurology, disorders of speech, psychopathology, in that order--has helped me to follow the work of his pre-analytical period and its transition into the analytical one. Perhaps the fact of my being the only foreigner in that circle gave me an opportunity for some degree of greater objectivity than the others; immeasurably great as was my respect and admiration for both the personality and achievements of Freud, my own hero-worshipping propensities had been worked through before I encountered him. And Freud's extraordinary personal integrity--an outstanding feature of his personality-so impressed itself on those near to him that I can scarcely imagine a greater profanation of one's respect for him than to present an idealized portrait of someone remote from humanity. His claim to greatness, indeed, lies largely in the honesty and courage with which he struggled and overcame his own inner difficulties and emotional conflicts by means which have been of inestimable value to others." - Ernst Jones

Jonson, Ben and George A. E. Parfitt (1982). The Complete Poems
. New Haven, Yale University Press.
Ben Jonson is oneof the major dramatists and poets of the seventeenth century.

Jordan, David C. (1999). Drug Politics: Dirty Money and Democracies
. Norman [Okla.], University of Oklahoma Press.
Premise: The growing and manufacturing of drugs is at the core of the international drug trade, but there is much more to the drug problem than that. The trade is protected culturally and politically throughout the world. Indeed, the financial, scientific, social, and political impact of the drug culture threatens democratic stability and the international political environment.

Josephson, Matthew (1962). The Robber Barons: The Great American Capitalists 1861-1901
. London, Eyre & Spottiswoode.
Rockefeller, Morgan, Vanderbilt, Carnegie, Harriman, Gould, Frick. This is the story of the giant American capitalists who seized economic power after the Civil War and altered the shape of American life forever.

Joxe, Alain and Sylvère Lotringer (2002). Empire of Disorder
. Los Angeles, Calif., and London, Semiotext (e); MIT (distributor).
In The Empire of Disorder, Alain Joxe offers a comprehensive analysis of the new world disorder of the twenty-first century. The contemporary world, claims Joxe, is dominated by the American empire but not ordered by it. This "leadership through chaos," based on maintaining a "creeping peace," is at the root of the present organization of violence and barbary on a global scale. At the same time, national governments--including that of the United States--are declining in influence as the imperial system fosters transnational mafias, corporations, and markets.

Joyce, James (1964). A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
. New York, Viking Press.
Autobiographical novel by James Joyce, published serially in The Egoist in 1914-15 and in book form in 1916; considered by many the greatest bildungsroman in the English language. The novel portrays the early years of Stephen Dedalus, who later reappeared as one of the main characters in Joyce's Ulysses (1922). Each of the novel's five sections is written in a third-person voice that reflects the age and emotional state of its protagonist, from the first childhood memories written in simple, childlike language to Stephen's final decision to leave Dublin for Paris to devote his life to art, written in abstruse, Latin-sprinkled, stream-of-consciousness prose. The novel's rich, symbolic language and brilliant use of stream-of-consciousness foreshadowed Joyce's later work. The work is a drastic revision of an earlier version entitled Stephen Hero and is the second part of Joyce's cycle of works chronicling the spiritual history of humans from Adam's Fall through the Redemption. The cycle began with the short-story collection Dubliners (1914) and continued with Ulysses and Finnegans Wake (1939).

Joyce, James (1975). Selected Letters of James Joyce
. New York, Viking Press.

Joyce, James (1993). Dubliners
. New York, N.Y., U.S.A., Penguin.
Dubliners was completed in 1905, but a series of British and Irish publishers and printers found it offensive and immoral, and it was suppressed. The book finally came out in London in 1914, just as Joyce's Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man began to appear in the journal Egoist under the auspices of Ezra Pound. The first three stories in Dubliners might be incidents from a draft of Portrait of the Artist, and many of the characters who figure in Ulysses have their first appearance here, but this is not a book of interest only because of its relationship to Joyce's life and mature work. It is one of the greatest story collections in the English language--an unflinching, brilliant, often tragic portrait of early twentieth-century Dublin. The book, which begins and ends with a death, moves from "stories of my childhood" through tales of public life. Its larger purpose, Joyce said, was as a moral history of Ireland.

Joyce, James (1999). Finnegans Wake
. New York, Penguin Books.
Experimental novel by James Joyce. Extracts of the work appeared as Work in Progress from 1928 to 1937, and it was published in its entirety as Finnegans Wake in 1939. The book is, in one sense, the story of a publican in Chapelizod (near Dublin), his wife, and their three children; but Mr. Humphrey Chimpden Earwicker, Mrs. Anna Livia Plurabelle, and Kevin, Jerry, and Isabel are every family of mankind. The motive idea of the novel, inspired by the 18th-century Italian philosopher Giambattista Vico, is that history is cyclic; to demonstrate this the book begins with the end of a sentence left unfinished on the last page. Languages merge: Anna Livia has "vlossyhair "--wlosy being Polish for "hair "; "a bad of wind" blows--bad being Persian for "wind." Characters from literature and history appear and merge and disappear. On another level, the protagonists are the city of Dublin and the River Liffey standing as representatives of the history of Ireland and, by extension, of all human history. As he had in his earlier work Ulysses, Joyce drew upon an encyclopedic range of literary works. His strange polyglot idiom of puns and portmanteau words is intended to convey not only the relationship between the conscious and the unconscious but also the interweaving of Irish language and mythology with the languages and mythologies of many other cultures.

Joyce, James (1992). Ulysses
. New York, Modern Library.
Considered the greatest 20th century novel written in English, in this edition Walter Gabler uncovers previously unseen text. It is a disillusioned study of estrangement, paralysis and the disintegration of society.

Jukes, Peter and Teresa Watkins (1990). A Shout in the Street: An Excursion into the Modern City. London; Boston, Faber and Faber.

The modern city as arena where public lives are played out and where chance encounters shape one's destiny is the topic of these eloquent, winding, meditative essays on four metropolises. To British playwright/director Jukes, Paris is a marketplace of desire, London a museum overlaid with nostalgic remnants of history. He views New York as illusory magnet of material promise, and Leningrad (once St. Petersburg) as emblematic of new beginnings, a link providing continuity between tsardom and revolution. Each essay is spliced with photographs and prefaced by a montage of quotations by the likes of Dickens, Freud, Orwell, Turgenev, Foucault, Lewis Mumford, Simone de Beauvoir, Ralph Ellison, along with occasional lyrics from Hart Crane, Bob Dylan, the Clash. Best read in snatches, this travelogue touches upon all manner of topics ranging from the "image industry" to subways, arcades, Dostoyevski's "underground man" and personal freedom. - Publishers Weekly

Jung, C. G. (1969). On the Nature of the Psyche
. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press.
Extracted from Bollingen series Volume 8 of Collected Works of Carl Jung. Includes the title essay and "On Psychic Energy." Jung's discovery of the 'collective unconscious', a psychic inheritance common to all humankind, transformed the understanding of the self and the way we interpret the world. In 'On the Nature of the Psyche' Jung describes this remarkable theory in his own words, and presents a masterly overview of his theories of the unconscious, and its relation to the conscious mind. Also contained in this collection is 'On Psychic Energy', where Jung defends his interpretation of the libido, a key factor in the breakdown of his relations with Freud. For anyone seeking to understand Jung's insights into the human mind, this volume is essential reading.

Jung, C. G. (1978). Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies
. Princeton, Princeton University Press.
"In the threatening situation of the world today, when people are beginning to see that everything is at stake, the projection-creating fantasy soars beyond the realm of earthly organizations and powers into the heavens, into interstellar space, where the rulers of human fate, the gods, once had their abode in the planets. Even people who would never have thought that a religious problem could be a serious matter that concerned them personally are beginning to ask themselves fundamental questions. Under these circumstances it would not be at all surprising if those sections of the community who ask themselves nothing were visited by 'visions,' by a widespread myth seriously believed in by some and rejected as absurd by others." - C. G. Jung, in Flying Saucers

Jung's primary concern in Flying Saucers is not with the reality or unreality of UFOs but with their psychic aspect. Rather than speculate about their possible nature and extraterrestrial origin as alleged spacecraft, he asks what it may signify that these phenomena, whether real or imagined, are seen in such numbers just at a time when humankind is menaced as never before in history. The UFOs represent, in Jung's phrase, "a modern myth."

Jung, C. G. (1978). Psychology and the East
. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press.
Extracted from Volumes 10, 11, 13, and 18. Includes Commentary on The Secret of the Golden Flower, Psychological Commentary on The Tibetan Book of the Dead and The Tibetan Book of the Great Liberation, Foreword to Suzuki's Introduction to Zen Buddhism, and Foreword to the I Ching.

Jung, C. G. (2002). Answer to Job
. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press.
Jung has never pursued the "psychology of religion" apart from general psychology. The unique importance of his work lies rather in his discovery and treatment of religious, or potentially religious, factors in his investigation into the unconscious as a whole and in his general therapeutic practice. In Answer to Job, first published in Zurich in 1952, Jung employs the familiar language of theological discourse. Such terms as "God," "wisdom," and "evil" are the touchstones of his argument. And yet, Answer to Job, perhaps Jung's most controversial work, is not an essay in theology as much as it is an examination of the symbolic role that theological concepts play in a person's psychic life.

Jung, C. G. and Anthony Storr (1983). The Essential Jung. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press.

This volume presents the essentials of Jung's thought in his own words. To familiarize readers with the ideas for which Jung is best known, the British psychiatrist and writer Anthony Storr has selected extracts from Jung's writings that pinpoint his many original contributions and relate the development of his thought to his biography. Dr. Storr has prefaced each extract with explanatory notes. These notes link the extracts, and with Dr. Storr's introduction, they show the progress and coherence of Jung's ideas, including such concepts as the collective unconscious, the archetypes, introversion and extroversion, individuation, and Jung's view of integration as the goal of the development of the personality.

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