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Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) - Italian Space Agency promoting and supporting Italian scientific and industrial participation in the European Space Agency (ESA) programs.
Air Force Research Laboratory - Research leading to discovery, development, and integration of affordable warfighting technologies for U.S. aerospace forces.
Air Force Space Vehicles Directorate - The Directorate is the U.S. Air Force center for space research and development. Primary areas of importance include the battlespace environment, protection of space assets, space vehicle control, space-based sensing, space vehicle technologies (structures, power, thermal management) wargaming, and performing a variety of integrated space technology demonstrations.
Brazilian Space Agency (AEB) - Space applications, satellites and payloads, launching vehicles, space infrastructure, research and development, training and development of human resources, and qualification of the national productive sector.
Canadian Armed Forces - The CF defends Canada by protecting its territory and areas of jurisdiction, helping civil authorities protect and sustain national interests, and assisting in national emergencies. It also defends North America by protecting Canadian approaches to the continent in partnership with the U.S., promoting Arctic security, and pursuing opportunities for Canada-U.S. defence cooperation in other areas.
Canadian Space Agency (CSA) - The CSA coordinates major Canadian space program activities including RADARSAT, an Earth observation satellite; the Canadian Astronaut Office; the David Florida Laboratory, Canada's world-class facility for assembly, integration, and testing of spacecrafts and other space hardwares; the Space Science and the Space Technologies Sectors; and the Canadian contributions to the International Space Station.
Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial - Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaço (CTA/IAE). Aerospace Technical Center - Institute for Aeronautics & Space.
Centrum Badan Kosmicznych (CBK)/Polish Academy of Sciences Space Research Center - Activities include the designing, preparation and realization of space experiments in the context of international cooperation, the processing and interpretation of results, constructing scientific instrumentation, running satellite observations, solar/ionospheric observations and forecasting services, and theoretical researches.
Danish Space Research Institute (DSRI) - A sector research institute under Denmark's Ministry of Research and Information Technology. Conducts space research and functions as a knowledge center for space instrumentation and technology.
Defense Advanced Research Programs Agency (DARPA) - Central research and development organization for the Department of Defense (DoD). It manages and directs selected basic and applied research and development projects for DoD, and pursues research and technology where risk and payoff are both very high and where success may provide dramatic advances for traditional military roles and missions and dual-use applications.
DefenseLINK - The official web site for the U.S. Department of Defense and starting point for finding U.S. military information online.
European Aeronautic Defence and Space (EADS) - A global leader in aerospace, defence and related services. It includes the aircraft manufacturer Airbus, the world's largest helicopter supplier Eurocopter and EADS Astrium, the European leader in space programmes from Ariane to Galileo. EADS is the major partner in the Eurofighter consortium, develops the A400M military transport aircraft, and holds a stake in the joint venture MBDA, the international leader in missile systems.
European Astronaut Centre (EAC) - The Directorate of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity of the European Space Agency (ESA) is responsible for manned spaceflight activities and microgravity activities performed in European cooperation. It is also in charge of the European astronauts, based at ESA's European Astronaut Centre in Cologne (Germany).
European Space Agency (ESA) - ESA was formed in 1975, replacing the ESRO satellite and ELDO launcher organisations. ESA operates by interaction with the national space agencies and aerospace industries in ESA's 15 member states. ESA speaks and acts for Europe on the global stage. ESA headquarters are in Paris, France. Also see:
Rosetta - Rosetta launched in 2004 and arrived at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 6 August 2014. It is the first mission in history to rendezvous with a comet, escort it as it orbits the Sun, and deploy a lander to its surface. Rosetta is an ESA mission with contributions from its member states and NASA. Rosetta's Philae lander is provided by a consortium led by DLR, MPS, CNES and ASI. The mission ended on 30 September 2016.
Vega - Vega is an ESA optional programme with the participation of seven Member States: Belgium, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. The programme's main objective is to provide Europe with a safe, reliable and competitive capacity to carry science and Earth observation satellites into orbit, while perfectly complementing the heavy Ariane 5 and medium Soyuz rockets already launched from Europe's Spaceport in French Guiana.
European Space Science Committee (ESSC) - European representative body on scientific issues concerning space research and related activities. The ESSC is non-governmental and provides an independent forum for the European scientific community to debate a wide range of space science issues.
Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Commercial Space Transportation (FAA/AST) - In fulfilling its responsibilities under Title 49, AST issues Launch Operator's Licenses for commercial launches of orbital rockets such as the Atlas, Delta, Taurus, and Athena launch vehicles, and the air-launched Pegasus rocket. AST has also issued licenses for commercial launches of suborbital sounding rockets such as the Black Brant and Starfire.
Global Positioning System (GPS): Schriever Air Force Base - A space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. Operated by the 2nd Space Operations Squadron at Schriever Air Force Base, Colo., GPS is also the world's largest military satellite constellation. The 2nd SOPS has three missions: global navigation, time transfer and nuclear detection. Uses of GPS include precise timing for financial transactions, search and rescue, communications, farming, recreation and both military and commercial aviation. The system provides critical capabilities to military, civil and commercial users around the world. It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver. Also see Wikipedia.
GLONASS - Acronym for Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema or Global Navigation Satellite System, is a space-based satellite navigation system operated by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces. It provides an alternative to Global Positioning System (GPS) and is the only alternative navigational system in operation with global coverage and of comparable precision. Also see Wikipedia.
House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space and Technology - The Committee's jurisdiction includes outer space, both exploration and control, astronautical research and development, scientific research and development, science scholarships, and legislation relating to scientific agencies such as the National Bureau of Standards, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Council and the National Science Foundation.
Mars500 - Mars-500 is a multi-part ground-based experiment simulating a manned flight to Mars. The experiment's facility is located at the Russian Academy of Sciences' Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) in Moscow, Russia. See official Mars500 IBMP site. A total of 640 experiment days have been scheduled, divided into three stages. During each stage, the crew of volunteers live and work in a mockup spacecraft. Communication with the outside world is limited, and has a simulated 20 minute delay. The supply of on-board consumables is limited. Also visit official ESA Mars500 site.
Mars Exploration Program/Mars Surveyor Program - Objectives of NASA's Mars Surveyor Program include furthering understanding of the biological potential and possible biological history of Mars, searching for indicators of past and/or present life there, improving understanding of Mars' climate evolution and planetary history, identifying the best locations for future long-term scientific bases, demonstrating technology, and acquiring data necessary for future human exploration of Mars.
Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) - Climate change in the Arctic and Boreal region is unfolding faster than anywhere else on Earth, resulting in reduced Arctic sea ice, thawing of permafrost soils, decomposition of long- frozen organic matter, widespread changes to lakes, rivers, coastlines, and alterations of ecosystem structure and function. NASA's ABoVE's science objectives are broadly focused on (1) gaining a better understanding of the vulnerability and resilience of Arctic and boreal ecosystems to environmental change in western North America, and (2) providing the scientific basis for informed decision-making. Research for ABoVE will link field-based, process-level studies with geospatial data products derived from airborne and satellite sensors, providing a foundation for improving the analysis, and modeling capabilities needed to understand and predict ecosystem responses and societal implications.
Atmospheric Composition Data and Information Services Center (ACDISC) - Ozone, trace gases, aerosols, air quality research. ACDISC provides access to AC data and information from various remote-sensing missions, from heritage TOMS, UARS, MODIS, and AIRS datasets, to the most recent data from Aura OMI, MLS, HIRDLS as well as AC datasets residing at other remote archive sites.
Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) - ASE software uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting.
code.NASA - Expands upon NASA's open source activities. The site surfaces existing projects, provides a forum for discussing projects and processes, and guides internal and external groups in open development, release, and contribution.
Curiosity: NASA's Next Mars Rover - NASA's next Mars rover, Curiosity, is slated to land on the Red Planet on Aug. 6, 2012 (EDT). Watch a real-time visualization of its journey through space and get up-to-date data sets using NASA's Eyes on the Solar System3-D interactive. (Free browser plug-in required.)
Deep Space Network (DSN) - An international network of antennas that supports interplanetary spacecraft missions and radio and radar astronomy observations for the exploration of the solar system and the universe. The network also supports selected Earth-orbiting missions. The DSN currently consists of three deep-space communications facilities placed approximately 120 degrees apart around the world: at Goldstone, in California's Mojave Desert; near Madrid, Spain; and near Canberra, Australia. This strategic placement permits constant observation of spacecraft as the Earth rotates, and helps to make the DSN the largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications system in the world.
Dryden Flight Research Center - Located at Edwards, California, is NASA's primary installation for flight research. Projects at Dryden over the past 50 years have lead to major advancements in the design and capabilities of many civilian and military aircraft.
Earth Observatory - Shares the images, stories, and discoveries about climate and the environment that emerge from NASA research, including its satellite missions, in-the-field research, and climate models.
Earth Systematic Missions (ESM) Program - Includes a broad range of multi-disciplinary science investigations aimed at developing a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its response to natural and human-induced forces.
Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) - Started by NASA in fiscal year 1994 to develop unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology and miniaturization of science instruments and sensors that can be carried by those aircraft. The ERAST program is managed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.
Exploration and Space Communications (ESC) - Located at Goddard Flight Center. ESC directly connects explorers to their instruments by providing behind-the-scenes communications services that make scientific discoveries possible.
Explorers Program - The mission of the Explorers Program is to provide frequent flight opportunities for world-class scientific investigations from space utilizing innovative, streamlined and efficient management approaches within the heliophysics and astrophysics science areas.
Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) - Mission will create the most accurate gravitational map of the Moon to date, improving our knowledge of near-side gravity by 100 times and of far-side gravity by 1000 times. The high-resolution gravitational field, especially when combined with a comparable-resolution topographical field, will enable scientists to deduce the Moon's interior structure and composition, and to gain insights into its thermal evolution--that is, the history of the Moon's heating and cooling, which opens the door to understanding its origin and development. Accurate knowledge of the gravity will also be an invaluable navigational aid to future lunar spacecraft.
Great Images in NASA (GRIN) - A collection of over a thousand images of significant historical interest scanned at high-resolution in several sizes. This collection is intended for the media, publishers, and the general public looking for high-quality photographs.
HEOMD's Knowledge-Based Risk Library - Knowledge-Based Risks (KBRs) capture risks that have been successfully mitigated in the past that are relevant to many current topics including: Project Management, Systems Engineering, Design and Development, Integration and Testing, and many more. A typical KBR will consist of subject-matter expert video interviews, white papers, articles, and presentations in order to provide an interactive and engaging way to identify and mitigate important risks relevant to HEOMD.
IceBridge: Antarctica - IceBridge, a six-year NASA mission, is the largest airborne survey of Earth's polar ice ever flown. It will yield an unprecedented three-dimensional view of Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets, ice shelves and sea ice. These flights will provide a yearly, multi-instrument look at the behavior of the rapidly changing features of the Greenland and Antarctic ice.
Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) - A 3.0 meter telescope, optimized for infrared observations, and located at the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawai'i. The observatory is operated and managed for NASA by the University of Hawai'i Institute for Astronomy, located in Honolulu.
Lunar Prospector - Launched on Jan. 6, 1998, Lunar Prospector mapped the moon's surface composition and looked for possible deposits of polar ice, measure magnetic and gravity fields, as well as study lunar 'out gassing.' On March 5, 1998, scientists announced that Lunar Prospector's neutron spectrometer instrument had detected hydrogen at both lunar poles, which scientists theorized to be in the form of water ice.
Mars Meteorites - Of the 22,000 or so meteorites that have been discovered on Earth, 30 have been identified as originating from the planet Mars.
Multimission Archive at STScI (MAST) - MAST supports a variety of astronomical data archives, with the primary focus on scientifically related data sets in the optical, ultraviolet, and near-infrared parts of the spectrum. MAST is funded by NASA's Office of Space Science through a grant from NASA and other grants and contracts.
NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project - Space transportation. Topics of interest include experiments and theories regarding the coupling of gravity and electromagnetism, the quantum vacuum, hyper fast travel, and super luminal quantum effects.
NASA Centers and Facilities
Ames Research Center - Specializes in research geared toward creating new knowledge and new technologies that span the spectrum of NASA interests.
Armstrong Flight Research Center - Edwards, California. NASA Armstrong is the agency's lead center for atmospheric flight research, operations, and testing and continues to accelerate advances in science, technology and exploration to enhance knowledge, education, innovation, economic vitality and stewardship of Earth.
Glenn Research Center - Responsible for advocating management space power and on-board propulsion technology development that meets the needs of the NASA Enterprises and Mission Centers.
Goddard Institute of Space Studies (GISS) - Research at the GISS emphasizes a broad study of global change, which is an interdisciplinary initiative addressing natural and man-made changes in our environment that occur on various time scales - from one-time forcings such as volcanic explosions, to seasonal and annual effects such as El Niño, and on up to the millennia of ice ages - and that affect the habitability of our planet.
Goddard Space Flight Center - Goddard is the lead center in NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE), which is NASA's long term, coordinated research effort to study the Earth as a global environmental system. The Earth Observing System (EOS) is the centerpiece of the Enterprise and is managed by Goddard. EOS features a series of polar orbiting and low inclination satellites for global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmospheres and oceans. The first EOS satellite, EOS Terra (formerly known as AM1), was launched in December 1999.
IV and V Facility - NASA's Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) Facility, home of NASA's IV&V Program. NASA IV&V efforts have contributed to NASA's improved safety record since the program's inception.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) - Manages multiple spacecraft and instruments conducting active missions, all important parts of NASA's program of exploration of Earth, the solar system and the universe beyond. Also see: JPL Technical Report Server, a database of abstracts, citations and full text technical reports written by and for the scientific and technical community and JPL Video and Audio.
Johnson Space Center - Home to U.S. human space flight program. The early stages of Johnson Space Center's development began in 1958, when the newly named NASA established the Space Task Group (STG) to oversee manned spaceflight programs. When President John F. Kennedy later determined that America would put humans on the moon within a decade, Houston was chosen as the site where manned missions would be managed and supervised.
Kennedy Space Center (KSC) - Located at the Cape Canaveral Spaceport in Florida. Handled the checkout, launch and landing of the Space Shuttle and its payloads. Continuing currently to support International Space Station operations as the orbiting laboratory enters its second decade of discoveries.
Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) - A world leader in space propulsion and transportation systems. The Center is also making significant contributions to the International Space Station. The Space Station is used to conduct microgravity and other space sciences research.
Michoud Assembly Facility - Michoud's capabilities include the manufacture and assembly of critical hardware components for the space shuttle and exploration vehicles under development at Marshall and other NASA field centers. Michoud is managed by Marshall Space Flight Center.
NASA Engineering and Safety Center - Performs value-added independent testing, analysis, and assessments of NASA's high-risk projects to ensure safety and mission success. The NESC engages proactively to help NASA avoid future problems.
NASA Headquarters - Located in Washington, D.C. provides overall guidance and direction to the agency, under the leadership of the Administrator. Ten field centers and a variety of installations around the country conduct the day-to-day work in laboratories, on air fields, in wind tunnels, and in control rooms.
NASA Safety Center - Reports to NASA's Office of Safety and Mission Assurance and supports the Safety and Mission Assurance (SMA) requirements of NASA's portfolio of programs and projects. We focus on improving the development of the personnel, processes and tools needed for the safe and successful achievement of NASA's strategic goals.
NASA Shared Services Center (NSSC) - A public/private partnership between NASA and computer sciences corporation service providers. NSSC consolidated selected activities from all NASA Centers in the areas of: financial management, human resources, information technology, and procurement.
Plum Brook Station - Home of Glenn Research Center's four test facilities which are available for use by research customers interested in scheduling test programs and test-related activities. Its mission is to assure safe, cost-effective, responsive and reliable performance of research testing to accomplish the R&D missions of the Glenn Research Center, other government agencies, and the private sector.
Stennis Space Center (SSC) - Responsible for NASA's rocket propulsion testing and for partnering with industry to develop and implement remote sensing technology.
NASA Spitzer Space Telescope - Launched on August 25, 2003 from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Base. Drifting in a unique Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, Spitzer sees an optically invisible universe dominated by dust and stars.
NASA Sun-Earth Connection Media Viewer - Allows visitors to zoom and pan live NASA solar and Earth images. It includes a scale tool. The viewer also contains video interviews with scientists and detailed scientific animations and visualizations. Requires Flash Player.
NASA Technical Report Server (NRTS) - A valuable resource for researchers, students, educators, and the public to access NASA's current and historical technical literature and engineering results. Over 500,000 aerospace-related citations, over 200,000 full-text online documents, and over 500,000 images and videos are available.
NASA Television (NTV) - A resource designed to provide real-time coverage of NASA agency activities and missions as well as providing resource video to the news media, and educational programming to teachers, students and the general public.
NASA Universe (slideshare.net) - View all of NASA's presentations: space, exploration, science, aeronautics, human spaceflight, technology, discovery, universe, government.
NASA Watch - Extensive information and news on NASA.
Near Earth Object Program - Coordinates NASA-sponsored efforts to detect, track and characterize potentially hazardous asteroids and comets that could approach the Earth.
New Horizons - A space probe launched by NASA on 19 January 2006 to study the dwarf planet Pluto and the Kuiper belt. It is expected to be the first spacecraft to fly by and study Pluto and its moons, Charon, Nix, Hydra, Kerberos, and Styx, with an estimated arrival date at the Pluto-Charon system of 14 July 2015. As of 21 January 2014, its distance from Pluto is about 4.29 AU (about 29.33 AU from Earth), with radio signals taking 4 hours to travel to the spacecraft from Earth (an 8 hour round trip). Also see Wikipedia.
open.NASA - A collaborative platform for the open government community to share success stories and projects they are working on. The content on this site is written by NASA employees and contractors across the agency.
Optical Communications - NASA provides communication on a beam of laser light with systems that are compact enough for flight missions. Since wavelengths are more than 10,000 times shorter in optical bands than in radio bands, small telescopes and low-power lasers can be used for very-high-data-rate transmissions over long distances.
Planet Quest - News and information hub covering NASA's search for extrasolar planets.
Quest - Dedicated to bringing NASA people and science to classrooms through the internet. Space Team Online, Aerospace Team Online, Solar System Online, and Deep Space Online. NASA Quest is a great resource for educators and kids interested in meeting and learning about NASA people and space science.
Science Laboratory - Researchers share the knowledge, excitement, and wonder of the latest scientific discoveries.
Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) - The first mission to be launched for NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) Program, a program designed to understand the causes of solar variability and its impacts on Earth.
Solar Physics Group - An overview of solar physics along with highlights of work performed by the Solar Physics Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center.
Technical Reports Server - Search abstract and technical report servers maintained by various NASA centers and programs.
Technical Reports Server (NTRS) - The NTRS is a valuable resource for researchers, students, educators, and the public to access NASA's current and historical technical literature and engineering results. Over 500,000 aerospace-related citations, over 200,000 full-text online documents, and over 500,000 images and videos are available.
Van Allen Probes - Studying Earth's radiation belts. Designed to help us understand the sun's influence on Earth and near-Earth space by studying the Earth's radiation belts on various scales of space and time.
Voyager - The mission objective of the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM) is to extend the NASA exploration of the solar system beyond the neighborhood of the outer planets to the outer limits of the Sun's sphere of influence, and possibly beyond. This extended mission is continuing to characterize the outer solar system environment and search for the heliopause boundary, the outer limits of the Sun's magnetic field and outward flow of the solar wind. Penetration of the heliopause boundary between the solar wind and the interstellar medium will allow measurements to be made of the interstellar fields, particles and waves unaffected by the solar wind. Also see the Voyager Golden Record and five hours of this unique recording via YouTube.
Winds: Measuring Ocean Winds from Space Science - The SeaWinds instrument on the QuikSCAT satellite was a specialized microwave radar that measured near-surface wind speed and direction under all weather and cloud conditions over Earth's oceans. SeaWinds uses a rotating dish antenna with two spot beams that sweep in a circular pattern. The antenna radiates microwave pulses at a frequency of 13.4 gigahertz across broad regions on Earth's surface. The instrument will collect data over ocean, land, and ice in a continuous, 1,800-kilometer-wide band, making approximately 400,000 measurements and covering 90% of Earth's surface in one day.
National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) - The NRO designs, builds and operates the nation's reconnaissance satellites. NRO products are provided to customers like the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Department of Defense (DoD), helping to plan military operations and and monitor the environment.
National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) - Provides access to a wide variety of astrophysics, space physics, solar physics, lunar and planetary data from NASA space flight missions, in addition to selected other data and some models and software.
Norsk Romsenter/Norwegian Space Centre - The main objectives in the Norwegian national program for Earth observation are to establish cost-effective services based on radar data. Services include ship detection for the Coastguard and for the Norwegian Navy, oil detection for the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (SFT) and the oil companies, and ice monitoring for users who operate in waters where ice is likely.
Patrick Air Force Base - An Air Force organization assigned to Air Force Space Command. The wing provides support for NASA's activities at Kennedy Space Center.
Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) - As the leading organization of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the field of investigations of outer space, solar system planets and other objects of the universe, IKI is in charge of long-range planning and elaboration of space research programs, a considerable part of which is performed within the framework of international space research cooperation.
Rymdbolaget/Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) - A government-owned commercial company with activities covering the entire range of space-related work from feasibility studies to operational applications of space technology.
Rymdstyrelsen/Swedish National Space Board (SNSB) - A central governmental agency under the Ministry of Industry, Employment and Communication. SNSB is responsible for national and international space efforts, primarily research and development.
Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR) - Delivers higher-end Navy information technology products and services to the fleet and other Defense Department stakeholders. As the Navy's Information Dominance Systems Command, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command designs, develops and deploys advanced communications and information capabilities.
Space Research Organization Netherlands (SRON) - SRON is the national center of expertise for the development and exploitation of satellite instruments in astrophysics and earth system science. It acts as the Dutch national agency for space research and as the national point of contact for ESA programs.
Sandia National Laboratories - Designe all non-nuclear components for U.S. nuclear weapons. Performs a wide variety of energy research and development projects. Works on assignments that respond to national security threats - both military and economic.
Space and Missle Systems Center (SMC) - A subordinate unit of the Air Force Space Command at Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado. SMC, located at Los Angeles Air Force Base, is an acquisition center for researching, developing and purchasing military space systems. It is also responsible for on-orbit check-out, testing, sustainment and maintenance of military satellite constellations and other Department of Defense space systems. Also see LA AFB and SMC Units.
UK Space Agency -Leads the UK's civil space program. Has initiated major programs in telecommunications, navigation, environmental research, space astronomy, and planetary exploration as well as completing Europe's existing commitments to developing Ariane 5 and to the International Space Station.
Vandenberg Air Force Base - Overview from FAS. Located on the Central Coast of California about 150 miles northwest of Los Angeles. Operated by the 30th Space Wing. The only military installation in the United States from which unmanned government and commercial satellites are launched into polar orbit and from which intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) are launched toward the Kwajalein Atoll to verify weapon systems performance. Vandenberg's military service dates back to 1941.
Yuri Gagarin Russian State Science Research Cosmonauts Training Centre - The Russian Federation's head organisation on selection of candidates for cosmonauts and training of cosmonauts of all categories and specialities for flights on any manned spacecraft, development and updating of cosmonaut training system, cosmonaut training medical support and cosmonaut rehabilitation after space flights, and construction and accommodation of technical equipment and facilities for cosmonaut training.
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