1968 Revolution Rewind - War, protests, political assassinations, be-ins, national elections, rock 'n' roll, civil rights movements. 1968 was a pivotal year in American history - and Pacifica was there to report on it, with perspectives and insights not offered elsewhere in radio journalism. Pacifica Radio Archives makes available one-of-a-kind recordings that help illuminate this era.
1991 Soviet coup d'etat attempt - Also known as the August Putsch or August Coup. A coup d'etat attempt by a group of members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev. The coup leaders were hard-line members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) who were opposed to Gorbachev's reform program and the new union treaty that he had negotiated which decentralised much of the central government's power to the republics. They were opposed, mainly in Moscow, by a short but effective campaign of civil resistance. Although the coup collapsed in only two days and Gorbachev returned to government, the event destabilised the Soviet Union and is widely considered to have contributed to both the demise of the CPSU and the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
2006 Israel-Lebanon Conflict - A series of ongoing military actions and clashes in northern Israel and Lebanon involving Hezbollah and the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). On 12 July 2006 Hezbollah initiated Operation Truthful Promise, named for a "promise" by its leader Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah to capture Israeli soldiers and swap them for the remaining three Lebanese prisoners held by Israel, among them Samir Kuntar. Hezbollah opened with a barrage of Katyusha rockets on Israeli vilages all along the border, which was a diversion for the main early morning raid into Israeli territory. The raid resulted in the deaths of eight Israeli soldiers and the capture of another two. One Israeli civilian was severly wounded in Shtula, and several others were hospitalized following the bombardment. Israel then responded with Operation Just Reward, later renamed Operation Change of Direction. This retaliatory strike has so far included extensive bombing raids by the Israeli Air Force (IAF), a full air and naval blockade, and a number of raids into southern Lebanon.
A 1935 US Plan for Invasion of Canada - A full-text reproduction of the 1935 plan for a U.S. invasion of Canada prepared at the U.S. Army War College, G-2 intelligence division, and submitted on December 18, 1935. This is the most recent declassified invasion plan available from the US archival sources.
Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives (ALBA) - ALBA is a non profit national organization devoted to the preservation and dissemination of the history of the North American role in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and its aftermath.
Alger Hiss Story - Portal for access to primary information about Alger Hiss, the Hiss case and the early Cold War years - including new scholarship, newly released official documents from various governments and government agencies, and the archival material, such as trial testimony, court and government records and commentary, collected in many libraries and online repositories.
America's Longest War - Provides a balanced history of the Vietnam War. It is not mainly a military history, but seeks to integrate military, diplomatic, and political factors in order to clarify America's involvement and ultimate failure in Vietnam. While it focuses on the American side of the equation, it provides sufficient consideration of the Vietnamese side to make the events comprehensible.
America's Role in Nation-Building: From Germany to Iraq - The post-World War II occupations of Germany and Japan set standards for postconflict nation-building that have not since been matched. Only in recent years has the United States has felt the need to participate in similar transformations, but it is now facing one of the most challenging prospects since the 1940s: Iraq. The authors review seven case studies - Germany, Japan, Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, Kosovo, and Afghanistan - and seek lessons about what worked well and what did not. Then, they examine the Iraq situation in light of these lessons. Success in Iraq will require an extensive commitment of financial, military, and political resources for a long time. The United States cannot afford to contemplate early exit strategies and cannot afford to leave the job half completed. By: James Dobbins, John G. McGinn, Keith Crane, Seth G. Jones, Rollie Lal, Andrew Rathmell, Rachel M. Swanger, Anga R. Timilsina. Publisher: RAND. Date: 2003.
American Presidency Project - Established in 1999 as a collaboration between John Woolley and Gerhard Peters at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Contains the most comprehensive collection of resources pertaining to the study of the President of the United States.
Armed Forces of Puerto Rican National Liberation - Throughout the late 1970's and mid-1980's the Armed Forces of Puerto Rican National Liberation (FALN or in Spanish, Fuerzas Armadas Liberacion Nacional Puertoriquena) and the Popular Boricua Army (Ejercito Popular Boricua), commonly known as the Macheteros, claimed responsibility for numerous bombings and robberies, causing a reign of terror in both the United States and Puerto Rico. The FALN operated in the continental United States, while the Macheteros were active mostly in Puerto Rico. Also read more here and at Wikipedia.
Auschwitz Trial - Began on November 24, 1947, in Kraków, when Polish authorities (the Supreme National Tribunal) tried 40 former staff of the WWII Auschwitz concentration camps. The trials ended on December 22, 1947.
Barka, Mehdi Ben - A Moroccan politician, head of the left-wing National Union of Popular Forces (UNPF) and secretary of the Tricontinental Conference. An opponent of Hassan II, he "disappeared" in Paris in 1965. As of 2009, the Ben Barka Affair has not been completely clarified, and investigations are on-going. See further bio info and The Nation article, Morocco's Dirty War.
Bayard Rustin Papers, 1942-1987 - Correspondence, memoranda, speeches, notes, reports, press releases, financial records, agendas, printed material, and other papers documenting Bayard Rustin's leading role as an activist in the African-American civil rights movement, advocate of international human rights and social reform, and pacifist.
Berkeley: The New Student Revolt by Hal Draper - "There were some things which made the Berkeley revolt peculiarly Berkeley's, but other things made it a revolt among white middle-class youth that could happen at any state university. And it is the second set of factors which will probably be of most importance to people outside Berkeley." - Mario Savio.
Black Panther Party - In October of 1966, in Oakland California, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense. The Panthers practiced militant self-defense of minority communities against the U.S. government, and fought to establish revolutionary socialism through mass organizing and community based programs. The party was one of the first organizations in U.S. history to militantly struggle for ethnic minority and working class emancipation - a party whose agenda was the revolutionary establishment of real economic, social, and political equality across gender and color lines.
Bracero Program - Farmworkers' Website backgrounder: The Mexican migrant worker has been the foundation for the development of the rich American agricultural industry, and the El Paso-Ciudad Juárez border region has played a key role in this historic movement. One of the most significant contributions to the growth of the agricultural economy was the creation of theBracero Program in which more than 4 million Mexican farm laborers came to work the fields of this nation. The braceros converted the agricultural fields of America into the most productive in the planet.
Caliphate - The term caliphate "dominion of a caliph ('successor,')," (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa, Turkish: Halife ) refers to the first system of government established in Islam, and represented the political unity of the Muslim Ummah (nation). In theory, it is a constitutional republic (see Constitution of Medina), meaning that the head of state (the Caliph) and other officials are dicate to the people according to Islamic law, which exercises power over their citizens. It was initially led by Muhammad's disciples as a continuation of the political system the prophet established, known as the 'rashidun caliphates'. It represented the political unity, not the theological unity of Muslims as theology was a personal matter. A "caliphate" is also a state which implements such a governmental system. Sunni Islam dictates that the head of state, the caliph, should be selected by Shura - elected by Muslims or their representatives. Followers of Shia Islam believe the caliph should be an imam descended in a line from the Ahl al-Bayt. After the Rashidun period until 1924, caliphates, sometimes two at a single time, real and illusory, were ruled by dynasties. The first dynasty was the Umayyad. This was followed by the Abbasid, the Fatimid, and finally the Ottoman Dynasty. The caliphate was "the core political concept of Sunni Islam, by the consensus of the Muslim majority in the early centuries.
Canadian War Museum (CWM) - Canada's national museum. It preserves the artifacts of Canadian military experience, interprets them for present and future generations, and advances the professional study of Canadian military history, including the effects of war and conflict on the nation and all its citizens.
Cantonsvile Nine File - On May 17, 1968, nine men and women entered the Selective Service Offices in Catonsville, Maryland, removed several hundred draft records, and burned them with homemade napalm in protest against the war in Vietnam. The nine were arrested and, in a highly publicized trial, sentenced to jail. This act of civil disobedience intensified protest against the draft, prompted debate in households in Maryland and across the nation, and stirred angry reaction on the part of many Americans. It also propelled the nine Catholic participants - especially priest brothers Daniel and Philip Berrigan - into the national spotlight.
Castro, Fidel - Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13, 1926), Cuban revolutionary leader who was prime minister of Cuba from February 1959 to December 1976 and then president, premier until his resignation from the office in February 2008. Also see:
Cheney Energy Task Force - A review and analysis provided by the Natural Resources Defense Council of the proceedings leading to the Bush administration's formulation of its May 2001 energy policy. In the spring of 2002, under order from a federal judge, the U.S. Department of Energy released to NRDC roughly 13,500 pages relating to previously secret proceedings of the Bush administration's energy task force. (President Bush formed the task force in early 2001 to develop a national energy policy, with Vice President Cheney at the helm.) Even though the government heavily censored the documents before supplying them to NRDC, they reveal that Bush administration officials sought extensive advice from utility companies and the oil, gas, coal and nuclear energy industries, and incorporated their recommendations, often word for word, into the energy plan.
Cheney's Law - PBS Frontline documentary; "For three decades Vice President Dick Cheney conducted a secretive, behind-closed-doors campaign to give the president virtually unlimited wartime power. Finally, in the aftermath of 9/11, the Justice Department and the White House made a number of controversial legal decisions. Orchestrated by Cheney and his lawyer David Addington, the department interpreted executive power in an expansive and extraordinary way, granting President George W. Bush the power to detain, interrogate, torture, wiretap and spy - without congressional approval or judicial review." First broadcast on October 16, 2007.
Chicago Anarchists on Trial - This Library of Congress collection showcases more than 3,800 images of original manuscripts, broadsides, photographs, prints and artifacts relating to the Haymarket Affair. The violent confrontation between Chicago police and labor protesters in 1886 proved to be a pivotal setback in the struggle for American workers' rights. These materials pertain to: the May 4, 1886 meeting and bombing; to the trial, conviction and subsequent appeals of those accused of inciting the bombing; and to the execution of four of the convicted and the later pardon of the remaining defendants. Of special interest and significance are the two dozen images of three-dimensional artifacts, including contemporary Chicago Police Department paraphernalia, labor banners, and an unexploded bomb casing given to juror J. H. Brayton by Chicago Police Captain Michael Schaack. The cornerstone is the presentation, as images and searchable text, of the transcript of the 3,200 pages of proceedings from the murder trial of State of Illinois v. August Spies, et al.
CIA Acknowledges Ties to Pinochet's Repression - After twenty-seven years of withholding details about covert activities following the 1973 military coup in Chile, the CIA released a report acknowledging its close relations with General Augusto Pinochet's violent regime. The report, CIA Activities in Chile, revealed for the first time that the head of the Chile's feared secret police, DINA, was a paid CIA asset in 1975, and that CIA contacts continued with him long after he dispatched his agents to Washington DC to assassinate former Chilean Ambassador Orlando Letelier and his 25-year old American associate, Ronni Karpen Moffitt.
CIA Confirms Role in 1953 Iran Coup - Declassified CIA documents on the United States' role in the controversial operation. American and British involvement in Mosaddeq's ouster, including what is believed to be the CIA's first formal acknowledgement that the agency helped to plan and execute the coup.
CIA in Latin America - Tom Blanton, commenting on the CIA's decision to award the Distinguished Career Intelligence Medal to the highest-ranking CIA official fired in a 1995 scandal for failing to inform Congress about the CIA's ties to human rights abuses in Guatemala - Terry Ward. The declassified record regarding Ward tells us that he was 'derelict' in his Constitutional duty to inform Congress of Guatemalan human rights abuses, that he failed to followup the CIA's commitment to investigate the Honduran military's death squad, that he looked the other way when the Nicaraguan contras tortured their prisoners, that he kept on the CIA payroll Guatemalan officers who were murderers, and that he was a senior official in a system that rewarded CIA case officers for the recruitment of assets regardless of the damage done to U.S. interests such as promoting human rights or civilian control of foreign militaries.
Civil Rights in Mississippi Digital Archive - Fully searchable database of digitized versions of rare and unique library and archival resources on race relations in Mississippi maintained by The University of Southern Mississippi Libraries.
COINTELPRO - An acronym for the FBI's domestic "counterintelligence programs" to neutralize political dissidents. Although covert operations have been employed throughout FBI history, the formal COINTELPRO's of 1956-1971 were broadly targeted against radical political organizations. Between 1960 and 1974, the FBI conducted over 500,000 separate investigations of "subversive" persons and groups, predicated on the possibility that they might try to overthrow the government by force. Yet not a single individual or group was prosecuted for planning or advocating the violent overthrow of the government - the alleged statutory basis for opening the FBI investigations. Numerous individuals were imprisoned on unrelated or spurious charges, though, in order to "neutralize" them, and several remain in prison today.
Cold War International History Project (CWIHP) Supports the full and prompt release of historical materials by governments on all sides of the Cold War, and seeks to accelerate the process of integrating new sources, materials and perspectives from the former "Communist bloc" with the historiography of the Cold War which has been written over the past few decades largely by Western scholars reliant on Western archival sources.
Comintern - The Comintern (from Communist International) is a commonly-used name for the Third International. It was formed on the initiative of Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (later the Communist Party of the Soviet Union or CPSU), as the Second International had betrayed socialism by the support of its major sections for the First World War.
Communist Manifesto - Complete text. The Communist Manifesto was first published in February 1848 in London. It was written by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels for the Communist League, an organisation of German emigre workers living in several western European countries.
Creation of SIOP-62: More Evidence on the Origins of Overkill - Since it was first created in 1960, the Single Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP) -the U.S. plan for nuclear war -has been one of the most secret and sensitive issues in U.S. national security policy. The essence of the first SIOP was a massive nuclear strike on military and urban-industrial targets in the Soviet Union, China, and their allies. To make such an attack possible, U.S. war planners developed a complex organizational scheme involving the interaction of targeting, weapons delivery systems and their flight paths, nuclear detonations over targets, measurements of devastation, and defensive measures, among other elements, and successive SIOPs would become even more complex.
Cuban Missle Crisis - National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 397. Fifty years after President Kennedy considered invading Cuba to take out Soviet missiles during the Cuban Missile Crisis, newly declassified Pentagon documents published today by the National Security Archive describe the potentially catastrophic risks of the invasion including 18,500 American casualties in the first 10 days, even without any nuclear explosions.
Dark Side, The - PBS Frontline documentary: "Amid revelations about faulty prewar intelligence and a scandal surrounding the indictment of the vice president's chief of staff and presidential adviser, I. Lewis "Scooter" Libby, FRONTLINE goes behind the headlines to investigate the internal war that was waged between the intelligence community and Richard Bruce Cheney, the most powerful vice president in the nation's history."
Densho - Densho's mission is to preserve the testimonies of Japanese Americans who were unjustly incarcerated during World War II before their memories are extinguished. First broadcast June 20, 2006.
Digital National Security Archive - ProQuest, in partnership with The National Security Archive produce the Digital National Security Archive, the most comprehensive collection available of significant primary documents central to U.S. foreign and military policy since 1945. Over 94,000 of the most important, declassified documents - totaling more than 650,000 pages - are included in the database. Many are published now for the first time. Browse - Search.
Documents from the Women's Liberation Movement - The materials in this on-line archival collection document various aspects of the Women's Liberation Movement in the U.S., and focus specifically on the radical origins of this movement during the late 1960s and early 1970s.
Early Soviet History - Documents on U.S. Foreign Policy (1918), Documents on Soviet Foreign Policy (1917-1918), R.S.F.S.R. Constitution of 1918, Books on the History of Soviet Russia, the Russian Revolution, Pictures of Soviet History, Sounds of the Soviet Union.
Emma Goldman Papers (SunSITE) - Emma Goldman (1869-1940) stands as a major figure in the history of American radicalism and feminism. An influential and well-known anarchist of her day, Goldman was an early advocate of free speech, birth control, women's equality and independence, and union organization. Her criticism of mandatory conscription of young men into the military during World War I led to a two-year imprisonment, followed by her deportation in 1919. For the rest of her life until her death in 1940, she continued to participate in the social and political movements of her age, from the Russian Revolution to the Spanish Civil War.
Executive Orders - Executive orders are official documents, numbered consecutively, through which the President of the United States manages the operations of the Federal Government. The text of Executive orders appears in the daily Federal Register as each Executive order is signed by the President and received by the Office of the Federal Register. The text of Executive orders beginning with Executive Order 7316 of March 13, 1936, also appears in the sequential editions of Title 3 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). A complete collection of Executive Orders is available at the National Archives.
Extraordinary Rendition - PBS Frontline documentary. Five years ago, award-winning journalist Stephen Grey left his job at The Sunday Times in London to investigate one of the darkest sides of the Bush Administration's war on terror. Beginning with the mysterious flight logs of secret CIA flights, Grey and others uncovered a secret CIA prison system involving countries like Egypt, Jordan, and Morocco, and the CIA's own "black sites," where the White House authorized "enhanced interrogation techniques," which critics say amount to torture. In Extraordinary Rendition," Grey sets out to find the CIA's "ghost prisoners" themselves -- some confirmed as high-value al Qaeda members, others unwittingly caught and released months or years later without charge. He also questions former CIA and FBI officials as the debate grows in Washington over the effectiveness and legality of extrajudicial detention and interrogation."There aren't many enthusiasts now inside the CIA who want to round up dozens of people anymore. But the threat is still there," says Grey."The key thing is that until Congress and the American people decide on a way of dealing with prisoners in the courtroom according to the rule of law, the CIA probably hasn't got any alternative but to either hold prisoners secretly in their own detention system, or to render them to countries that will do the CIA bidding." First shown November 6, 2007.
Eyes on the Prize - A critically acclaimed 14-part series on the dealing with the American Civil Rights Movement, was broadcast nationally by the Public Broadcasting Service. The first six programs, Eyes on the Prize: America's Civil Rights Years (1954-1965) was aired in January and February of 1987. The eight-part sequel, Eyes on the Prize II: America at the Racial Crossroads (1965-1985) was broadcast in 1990.
Eyes on the Prize II - During the decade of civil rights protests in the South, a sense of urgency and anger emerged from the black communities in the North. This urgency was best articulated by Malcolm X, then National Minister of the Nation of Islam. The program shows the influence of his philosophy on the staff of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) as they organized the Lowndes County Freedom Organization in Alabama and as they issued the call for "Black Power" during the 1966 Meredith March Against Fear in Mississippi.
Fairwell to Reform by John Chamberlain - Excerpts from Chamberlain's remarkable record of the era of Progressive reform in the United States, with introductory and critical comments by Edward J. Dodson - October, 2002. This excerpt highlights, in particular, Chamberlain's evaluation of the activities of Henry George and the "Single Taxers" who carried his ideas and work in the 20th century.
Foreign Relations of the United States (U.S. Department of State) - Presents the official documentary historical record of major U.S. foreign policy decisions and significant diplomatic activity. Foreign Relations volumes contain documents from Presidential libraries, Departments of State and Defense, National Security Council, Central Intelligence Agency, Agency for International Development, and other foreign affairs agencies as well as the private papers of individuals involved in formulating U.S. foreign policy.
Frank Olsen Legacy Project - The family claims that the death of Frank Olson on November 28, 1953 was a murder, not a suicide."Olsen died because of concern that he would divulge information concerning a highly classified CIA interrogation program called ARTICHOKE in the early 1950's, and concerning the use of biological weapons by the United States in the Korean War." In presenting its case, the family presents materials on biological warfare, human experimentation and mind control, state secrets, the CIA assassination of an American citizen, the mafia, multiple cover ups (coordinated by, among other people, Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld), and much else.
Free Speech Movement Archives - Offers a spectrum of opinions on what FSM was, information about Mario Savio, perspectives on what happened in the FSM. There's an extensive suite of documents of the conflict from all sides.
Free Speech Movement (FSM) Digital Archive - Student protest University of California, Berkeley, 1964-65. Leaflets, letters, press releases, statements, speeches, memoranda, oral histories, pamphlets and short works, reports and studies, minutes of meetings, governments documents, collections, chronology, bibliography, FSM Project.
Freedom Archives - Contains over 5000 hours of audiotapes. These recordings date from the late-60s to the mid-90s and chronicle the progressive history of the Bay Area, the United States, and international solidarity movements. The collection includes weekly news/ poetry/music programs broadcast on several educational radio stations; in-depth interviews and reports on social and cultural issues; diverse activist voices; original and recorded music, poetry, original sound collages; and an extensive La Raza collection.
Guevara, Che - Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14, 1928 - October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, El Che, or simply Che, was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, politician, author, physician, military theorist, and guerrilla leader. After death, his stylized image became a ubiquitous countercultural symbol worldwide. Also see:
Guide to the Cuban Revolution Collection, Manuscripts and Archives (Yale University Library) - The collection consists of photographs, films, printed matter, memorabilia, and other materials documenting various periods in the Cuban Revolution, particularly the years 1957-1960, 1964, and 1969. The materials were primarily created by photographer Andrew St. George and filmmaker David C. Stone. St. George's photographs provide extensive documentation of the 26th of July Movement from 1957 to 1959, and of Fidel Castro during his first year as prime minister. The films created by David C. Stone in 1969 include footage of the Vento School, Juventud Comunista, Turcios Lima Labor Brigade, Urbano Noris sugar mill, and orientadores rurales. The footage was incorporated into Compañeras y Compañeros, a 1970 documentary produced by David C. Stone, Barbara Stone, and Adolfas Mekas, a copy of which is in the collection. There are outtakes of Canadian Broadcasting Corporation film from 1964 of scenes of Havana and Santiago and interviews with Fidel Castro, students, cabaret performers, and a female lieutenant in the revolutionary armed forces. The collection also includes a small amount of papers, some of which were compiled by Andrew St. George, including a manuscript notebook of an interview of Fidel Castro by St. George, medallions and ribbons from the 26th of July Movement, and miscellaneous printed materials.
Gulf War, The - PBS Frontline documentary. An in-depth examination of the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf crisis. First broadcast on January 9, 1996.
Guatemala '54 - From the National Security Archive.These documents, including an instructional guide on assassination found among the training files of the CIA's covert Operation PBSUCCESS," were among several hundred records released by the Agency on May 23, 1997 on its involvement in the infamous 1954 coup in Guatemala. After years of answering Freedom of Information Act requests with its standard "we can neither confirm nor deny that such records exist," the CIA has finally declassified some 1400 pages of over 100,000 estimated to be in its secret archives on the Guatemalan destabilization program."
Gulag - The Soviet system of forced labor camps was first established in 1919 under the Cheka, but it was not until the early 1930s that the camp population reached significant numbers. By 1934 the GULAG, or Main Directorate for Corrective Labor Camps, then under the Cheka's successor organization the NKVD, had several million inmates. Prisoners included murderers, thieves, and other common criminals - along with political and religious dissenters.
Haymarket Affair Digitall Collection - The Chicago Historical Society has created this digital collection to provide on-line access to its primary source materials relating to the Haymarket Affair, a controversial moment in Chicago's past and a pivotal event in the early history of the American labor movement.
History and Politics Out Loud - Searchable archive of politically significant audio materials, including such gems as speeches from the 1964 Civil Rights March on Washington D.C. and the Nixon Watergate Tapes.
International Institute of Social History (IISH) - The IISH was founded in 1935. It is one of the world's largest documentary and research institutions in the field of social history in general and the history of the labour movement in particular. Most of the collections are open to the public. Also see IISH Archives.
Introduction to Postcolonial Studies - The field of postcolonial studies has been gaining prominence since the 1970s. Some would date its rise in the Western academy from the publication of Edward Said's influential critique of Western constructions of the Orient in his 1978 book, Orientalism. The growing currency within the academy of the term "postcolonial" (sometimes hyphenated) was consolidated by the appearance in 1989 of The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures by Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin. Since then, the use of cognate terms Commonwealth and Third World that were used to describe the literature of Europe's former colonies has become rarer. Although there is considerable debate over the precise parameters of the field and the definition of the term "postcolonial," in a very general sense, it is the study of the interactions between European nations and the societies they colonized in the modern period. The European empire is said to have held sway over more than 85% of the rest of the globe by the time of the First World War, having consolidated its control over several centuries. The sheer extent and duration of the European empire and its disintegration after the Second World War have led to widespread interest in postcolonial literature and criticism in our own times.
Irish History Online - Includes bibliographic information on books and pamphlets, articles from journals published in Ireland or internationally, and chapters from books of essays, including Festschriften and conference proceedings.
James Meredith's "March Against Fear" - On June 5, 1966, James Meredith, the first black student to integrate the University of Mississippi in 1962, embarks on a solo 220-mile March Against Fear," designed to encourage black voting in Mississippi. On June 6, 1966 in Hernando, Mississippi, Meredith is shot down by white racist Aubrey James Norvell.
Jean-Juste, Fr. Gerard - (February 7, 1946 - May 27, 2009) A Roman Catholic priest and rector of Saint Claire's church for the poor in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. He was also a liberation theologian and a supporter of the Fanmi Lavalas political party, the largest in Haiti. In 1978, Father Jean-Juste founded the Haitian Refugee Center in Miami, Florida, United States. He was characterized as a beloved figure among South Florida's Haitian community. He gained renown throughout Haiti and the Haitian diaspora as a determined opponent of the interim government of Prime Minister Gerard Latortue. Gerard Latortue's de facto rule came about after the violent overthrow of the government of Jean-Bertrand Aristide by anti-government rebels (see 2004 Haiti rebellion).
John F. Kennedy: History, Memory, Legacy: An Interdisciplinary Inquiry - Interdisciplinary discussion and analysis of significant issues of the Kennedy era, including civil rights, space exploration, the nuclear threat, and the influence of the media on presidential politics as well as Kennedy's assassination as presented in 2008 conference held at the University of North Dakota.
Kennedy Assassination - Dedicated to debunking the mass of misinformation and disinformation surrounding the murder of JFK.
Last Hurrah Bookshop - Specializing in political assassinations, conspiracies, and the Kennedy family.
Mary Farrell Foundation (researcher and archivist of the JFK assassination) - More than 1 million pages of scanned government records, including those in the National Archives' JFK collection. The foundation archives include reports and files from the Warren Commission, the House Select Committee on Assassinations and declassified files from the FBI, CIA and other agencies.
Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza - The museum's reading room has access to 40,000 images, documents, recordings and artifacts. There is also an extensive oral history collection of people who played principal roles in the assassination drama as well as hours of local news coverage and home movies.
Warren Commission Hearings and Exhibits - The Warren Commission published 26 volumes of hearings and exhibits within a few months after issuing its Report. Volumes 1 - 5 are hearings conducted by the Commission members in Washington DC. Volumes 6 - 15 are hearings conducted by staff attorneys on location in Dallas, New Orleans, and other locations. Volume 15 also contains an index to names and exhibits. Volumes 16 - 26 contain photographed Commission Exhibits, usually abbreviated to CE (i.e., CE 399).
Warren Report - The President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy was announced by President Johnson on November 29, 1963, one week after the shots rang out in Dallas, and five days after alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald was killed while in police custody. A little under 10 months later, the Warren Commission delivered this 888-page Report. The Report found that Lee Harvey Oswald killed President Kennedy, alone and unaided, and that similarly Oswald's killer Jack Ruby was a 'lone nut.'
Johnson, Chalmers - Johnson wrote numerous books including, three examinations of the consequences of American Empire: Blowback, The Sorrows of Empire, and Nemesis: The Last Days of the American Republic.
Judi Bari Website - Dedicated to Judi Bari, renowned environmental, labor and social justice leader who organized nonviolent protests against destructive logging of the redwood forests.
Kennedys, The - PBS American Experience film documentary and resources. The long Kennedy quest for the presidency can be seen as a chronicle of evolving political ideology from the isolationism of Joe Kennedy to the cold warrior stance of John to the fierce social activism of Robert Kennedy; and, finally, to Edward, the lone male survivor. Drawing on a wealth of still photographs, archival footage, and home movies, The Kennedys features extensive interviews with family members, friends, and first-hand witnesses to the many chapters of the Kennedy story.
Kent State University: May 4, 1970 Collection - Collections, resources and archives concerning the May 4, 1970, Ohio National Guardsmen rifle fire at Kent State University that ended the lives of four student Vietnam War protestors: Allison Krause, Jeffrey Miller, Sandra Scheuer and William Schroeder, left one student permanently paralyzed, and wounded eight others.
Khaled Mashal - Overall leader of Hamas - a Palestinian political, social, and paramilitary organization - since the assassination of Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi in 2004. In addition, Mashal heads the Syrian branch of the political bureau of Hamas.
Kissinger Telephone Conversations - Amidst a massive bombing campaign over North Vietnam, Henry Kissinger and Richard Nixon candidly shared their evident satisfaction at the "shock treatment" of American B 52s, according to a declassified transcript of their telephone conversation published for the first time on December 23, 2008, by the National Security Archive. The transcript of the April 15, 1972, phone conversation is one of over 15,500 documents in a unique, comprehensively-indexed set of the telephone conversations (telcons) of Henry A. Kissinger-perhaps the most famous and controversial U.S. official of the second half of the 20th century.
Labor Press Project - This site brings together information about the history and ongoing influence of newspapers and periodicals published by unions, labor councils, and radical organizations in the Pacific Northwest.
Lenny Bruce Trial - "What does it mean to be found obscene in New York? This is the most sophisticated city in the country. If anyone is the first person to be found obscene in New York, he must feel utterly depraved." - Lenny Bruce, after his conviction for obscenity in New York's Cafe Au Go Go trial.
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution - Provides an accessible and lively introduction to the French Revolution as well as an extraordinary archive of some of the most important documentary evidence from the French Revolution, including 338 texts, 245 images, and a number of maps and songs. Lynn Hunt of UCLA and Jack Censer of George Mason University - both internationally renowned scholars of the French Revolution - serve as principal authors and editors.
Lynne Stewart - Radical human rights attorney Lynne Stewart was falsely accused of helping terrorists. On Monday, April 8, 2002, she was arrested and agents searched her Manhattan office for documents. She was arraigned before Manhattan federal Judge John Koetl. This was an obvious attempt by the U.S. government to silence dissent and install fear in those who would fight against the U.S. government's racism, seek to help Arabs and Muslims being prosecuted for free speech and defend the rights of all oppressed people. Lynne Stewart received a 28-month sentence in October 2006. Her lawyers appealed, and she was out on bail until November 17, 2009, when her bail was revoked after the Second Circuit ruled on her and the government's appeals. This site follows the case, provides information on Lynne Stewart.
Mahatma Ghandi - Learn about Gandhi, his life, work and philosophy. This comprehensive site is regularly updated and maintained by non-profit Gandhian research organizations in India.
My Lai Massacre - The phrase "search and destroy" has taken on a sort of pop-culture currency in recent years, but in Vietnam circa 1968, it was anything but a glib cliche. It was an order, and lives could be resting on its successful execution. But when the order was issued outside a small village in Southern Vietnam widely called My Lai (its actual name is Son My) on March 16, 1968, the result was a lot of "destroy" and very little "search." The resulting massacres represents one of the low points in American history.
Nakba - An Arabic word that means "catastrophe." The Nakba was the destruction, expulsion, looting, massacres and incidents of rape of the Palestinian inhabitants of this country. It was keeping refugees out by force at the end of the war, in order to establish the Jewish state. And it is the ongoing destruction of Palestinian localities, the disregard for the rights of refugees and displaced people, and the prohibition against teaching and commemorating the Nakba in schools and civic groups.
National Archives (UK) - The repository of the national archives for England, Wales and the United Kingdom. The PRO is the treasure house of the nation's memory. Included on its 90 miles of shelving are a hugely diverse range of historical documents including returns for parliamentary elections in 1275, lists of Elizabeth I's jewels, Shakespeare's will, Guy Fawkes' confession, and the first American newspaper. There is Captain Bligh's account of the mutiny on The Bounty, Napoleon's post mortem, decrypts of the British Ambassador's despatches describing the start of the Russian Revolution, the abdication instrument signed by Edward VIII, minutes of Churchill's war cabinet and and 617 squadron's account of the busting of the Mohne and Eder dams.
National Committee to Reopen the Rosenberg Case - The Rosenberg case (resulting in the executions of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg on June 19, 1953) was unprecedented in the way the death penalty was applied. Never before in American civil court history had there been an execution for espionage, let alone conspiring to commit espionage. NCRRC seeks to have the Rosenbergs and Sobell exonerated and to have the government publicly address and own up to its complicity in the miscarriage of justice that took place in this case. Each year, on June 19th, the date of the Rosenbergs' executions, the NCRRC holds a memorial gathering.
National Security Archive - The Archive is simultaneously a research institute on international affairs, a library and archive of declassified U.S. documents obtained through the Freedom of Information Act, a public interest law firm defending and expanding public access to government information through the FOIA, and an indexer and publisher of the documents in books, microfiche, and electronic formats. National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Books provide online access to critical declassified records on issues including U.S. national security, foreign policy, diplomatic and military history, intelligence policy, and more. Also see National Security Archive Documentation Projects, including:
Nixon Grand Jury Records - In May 1975, the Watergate Special Prosecution Force decided that it was necessary to question former President Richard M. Nixon in connection with various investigations it was conducting. Nixon was questioned over the period of two days, June 23 and June 24, 1975, and the testimony was taken as part of various investigations being conducted by the January 7, 1974, Grand Jury for the District of Columbia (the third Watergate Grand Jury). Chief Judge George Hart signed an order authorizing that the sworn deposition of Mr. Nixon be taken at the Coast Guard Station in San Mateo, California with two members of the grand jury present.
Nixon Tapes - Between 1971 and 1973, President Richard Nixon secretly recorded 3,700 hours of his phone calls and meetings. These recordings were made in the Oval Office (commonly designated by the abbreviation OVAL), his hideaway office in the Executive Office Building (EOB), the Cabinet Room (CAB), Camp David (CDHW), and on various White House telephones (WHT). Currently, approximately 2,100 hours of these tapes have been declassified, released, and are available to the public. The purpose of this website is to make these transcripts available, side-by-side multiple audio formats, to members of the public who are not able to travel to the National Archives and Records Administration's (NARA) Archives II facility in College Park, Maryland, or to the Nixon Presidential Library in Yorba Linda, California, to listen to and transcribe the conversations for themselves.
Nuremberg Trials - A series of military tribunals, held by the Allied forces of World War II, most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of Nazi Germany. The trials were held in the city of Nuremberg.
Open Society Archives (OSA) - The mission of the Open Society Archives at Central European University (OSA) is to obtain, preserve and make available research resources for the study of Communism and the Cold War, particularly in Central and Eastern Europe, as well as the issues of human rights.
Pentagon Papers - On the 40th anniversary of the leak of the Pentagon Papers to the press, the National Archives, along with the Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon Presidential Libraries, has released the complete report. The 48 boxes in this series contain a complete copy of the 7,000 page report along with numerous copies of different volumes of the report, all declassified. Approximately 34% of the report is available for the first time. What is unique about this, compared to other versions, is that the complete Report is now available with no redactions compared to previous releases. All the supplemental back-documentation is included. In the Gravel Edition, 80% of the documents in Part V.B. were not included. This release includes the complete account of peace negotiations, significant portions of which were not previously available either in the House Armed Services Committee redacted copy of the Report or in the Gravel Edition.
Port Chicago Disaster - On July 17th, 1944, the worst home front disaster of WWII, occurred at a Naval pier in the San Francisco Bay Area. Five thousand tons of ammunition in ships being loaded by black sailors exploded, sending a blast more than 12,000 feet into the sky. The explosion destroyed the pier, a train, and both ships, instantly killing all 320 men aboard. This site investigates the dangerous work assigned to the African-American Navy personnel, the explosion, the mutiny that followed, and the court martial and eventual pardon of the servicemen involved.
Presidential Studies Quarterly - Articles, features, review essays, and book reviews covering all aspects of the American presidency. PSQ's distinguished contributors are leading scholars and professionals in political science, history, and communications.
Propaganda Posters - Collection of 1400+ posters from Russia, Czech Republic, Poland and Cuba.
Rachel Carrie - An American peace activist and member of International Solidarity Movement (ISM), who was crushed to death by an Israel Defense Forces (IDF) armored bulldozer in Rafah, in the southern part of the Gaza Strip. Rachel Corrie's life has been memorialized in several tributes, including the play My Name Is Rachel Corrie and the cantata The Skies are Weeping. Her collected writings were published in 2008 under the title Let Me Stand Alone, opening "a window on the maturation of a young woman seeking to make the world a better place".
Redstockings - Also known as Redstockings of the Women's Liberation Movement. A radical feminist group that was founded in January 1969. The word is a neologism, combining the term bluestocking, a pejorative term for intellectual women, with "red", for its association with the revolutionary left. Redstockings women would go on to champion and spread knowledge of vital women's liberation theory, slogans and actions that have become household words such as consciousness-raising, the personal is political, the pro-woman line, sisterhood is powerful, the politics of housework, the Miss America Protest, and speakouts that would break the taboos of silence around subjects like abortion.Also see Wikipedia article.
Remember Ken Saro-Wiwa - On November 10th 1995, Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight Ogoni colleagues were executed by the Nigerian state for campaigning against the devastation of the Niger Delta by oil companies, especially Shell and Chevron.
Retro Report - Combining documentary techniques with shoe-leather reporting, peels back the layers of some of the most perplexing news stories of the past with the goal of encouraging the public to think more critically about current events and the media.
Robert F. Kennedy Assassination Archives Collection - The world's largest, most complete compilation of materials relating to this event. Established in 1984, the archives contains thousands of copies of government documents obtained through the Freedom of Information Act public disclosure process as well as manuscripts, photographs, audiotape interviews, video tapes, news clippings and research notes complied by journalists and other private citizens who have investigated discrepancies in the case.
Rosemary Nelson Inquiry - This is the website for the independent public inquiry into the murder in 1999 of Rosemary Nelson, a solicitor from Lurgan in Northern Ireland. The Inquiry was announced by the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, the Rt Hon Paul Murphy MP, on 16 November 2004. The results of the inquiry were published on 23 May 2011. The Inquiry found that there was no evidence of direct collusion between state agencies and Loyalists who murdered her, but that said agencies did not take threats against her seriously, effectively not investigating them properly. The report also said that members of the Royal Ulster Constabulary had legitimised her as a target by abusing and assaulting her in public in Portadown two years before her death. The report also said that it could not rule out the possibility that rogue members of the security forces had been involved in the bomb attack that killed her.
Rosenberg Grand Jury Testimony - More than 50 years after the historic but controversial execution of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, who were convicted of atomic espionage, the U.S. government has made public long shrouded grand jury testimony from its prosecution of the Rosenbergs.
Sandino Rebellion: Nicaragua 1927-1934 - Site houses and integrates over 2,350 archival documents on the rebellion, comprising around 8,000 pages of text, many transcribed and fully searchable. It also lists & identifies the specific archival locations of another 5,000 documents, which together comprise over 15,000 pages of text. Also see Wikipedia backgrounder on Augusto Cesar Sandino.
Secret No More - A subject guide to thousands of FBI files (and their file numbers) that are now publicly accessible. This list is being compiled, letter by letter, by Michael J. Ravnitzky, a serious student of the Freedom of Information Act who has personally filed more than 2,000 requests.
Secrets, Lies, and Atomic Spies - NOVA's companion site to program chronicling the lives and covert activities of the so-called "atom spies" in the 1940's, including Maugham, Hari, Smedley, Berg, Hiss, Bentley, Fleming, Philby, Ames, Pollard, Hall, excerpts from Venona intercepts, and interviews with family members of the Venona-era spies.
Showdown with Iran - PBS Frontline documentary."As Iraq descends into chaos and civil war, FRONTLINE examines the rise of its neighbor - Iran - as one of America's greatest threats and most puzzling foreign policy challenges. Through interviews with key players on both sides, FRONTLINE traces the tumultuous history of U.S.-Iran relations since 9/11 -- from unprecedented early cooperation in Afghanistan, to the growing crisis over Iran's nuclear ambitions and Tehran's open threats to drive America out of the Middle East." First shown October 23, 2007.
Siege and Commune of Paris, 1870-1871 (Northwestern University Library) - Over 1200 digitized photographs and images recorded during the Siege and Commune of Paris cir. 1871. In addition to the images in this set, the Library's Siege & Commune Collection contains 1500 caricatures, 68 newspapers in hard-copy and film, hundreds of books and pamphlets and about 1000 posters.
Six Nations - The people of the Six Nations, also known by the French term, Iroquois Confederacy, call themselves the Hau de no sau nee, meaning People Building a Long House. Located in the northeastern region of North America, originally the Six Nations was five and included the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. The sixth nation, the Tuscaroras, migrated into Iroquois country in the early eighteenth century. Together these peoples comprise the oldest living participatory democracy on earth. Their story, and governance truly based on the consent of the governed, contains a great deal of life-promoting intelligence for those of us not familiar with this area of American history. The original United States representative democracy, fashioned by such central authors as Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson, drew much inspiration from this confederacy of nations. In our present day, we can benefit immensely, in our quest to establish anew a government truly dedicated to all life's liberty and happiness much as has been practiced by the Six Nations for over 800 hundred years.
Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza - Educational and permanent historic exhibit that examines the life, times, death and legacy of President John F. Kennedy within the context of American history. The site of the museum is where a sniper's nest and rifle were found after the assassination of President Kennedy.
Slobodan Milosevic - Pro-Milosevic site providing research and analysis of war crimes charges and trial documents, NATO war crimes in Yugoslavia, and links to further resources.
SNCC 1960-1966 - Six years of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.
Spanish Civil War - Main events and issues, political organizations, military organizations, important battles and strategic positions, biographies, international leaders, individual countries and the Spanish Civil War.
Student Activism in the 1930s - The modern American Student movement began in the 1930s, when the National Student League joined with the Student League for Industrial Democracy to form the American Student Union (ASU). During its peak years, from spring 1936 to spring 1939, the movement mobilized at least 500,000 college students (about half the American student body) in annual one-hour strikes against war. Historical essays, documents, photo gallery.
Tennessee vs. John Scopes: The "Monkey Trial" - Original essays, images, cartoons, trial transcript, statutes, biographical sketches, evolution text, and assorted other materials relating to the Scopes "Monkey" trial of 1925. Also see:
Tlatelolco Massacre: Declassified U.S. Documents on Mexico and the Events of 1968 - Mexico's tragedy unfolded on the night of October 2, 1968, when a student demonstration ended in a storm of bullets in La Plaza de las Tres Culturas at Tlatelolco, Mexico City. The extent of the violence stunned the country. When the shooting stopped, hundreds of people lay dead or wounded, as Army and police forces seized surviving protesters and dragged them away. Although months of nation-wide student strikes had prompted an increasingly hard-line response from the Diaz Ordaz regime, no one was prepared for the bloodbath that Tlatelolco became. More shocking still was the cover-up that kicked in as soon as the smoke cleared.
Trial of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg - A site dedicated to the explication of the Rosenberg-Sobell Trial. Excerpts from the Rosenberg trial transcript, appellate decisions, Rosenbergs' letters, images, and other materials pertaining to the Rosenbergs' 1951 espionage trial.
Trial of the Chicago Seven (1969-1970) - Trial transcript excerpts, essays, chronology, images, maps, court decisions, and other materials relating to the trial of the Chicago 8 or Chicago 7 (depending whether you count Seale).
Trinity Atomic Web Site - Nuclear weapons: history, technology, and consequences in historic documents, photos, and videos.
Truth and Reconciliation Commission: Canada - Mandated to learn the truth about what happened in the residential schools for Aboriginal people in Canada, which date back to the 1870s. Over 130 residential schools were located across the country, and the last school closed in 1996. During this era, more than 150,000 First Nations, Metis, and Inuit children were placed in these schools often against their parents' wishes. Many were forbidden to speak their language and practice their own culture. While there is an estimated 80,000 former students living today, the ongoing impact of residential schools has been felt throughout generations and has contributed to social problems that continue to exist.
Truth Commissions - Truth commissions exist for a designated period of time, have a specific mandate, exhibit a variety of organizational arrangements, and adopt a range of processes and procedures, with the goal of producing and disseminating a final report, including conclusions and recommendations. Ultimately, the goals of such commissions are to contribute to end and account for past abuses of authority, to promote national reconciliation and/or bolster a new political order or legitimize new policies. The links below, managed by United States Institute of Peace, briefly describe the establishment, mandate, composition, and reports of such bodies.
Ultrasensitive Bay of Pigs - Shortly after the CIA's botched paramilitary invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs, President John F. Kennedy established a commission to investigate the failure and to consider whether the U.S. should conduct similar covert operations in the future. The commission -- chaired by General Maxwell Taylor, but also including the president's brother, Attorney General Robert Kennedy, Admiral Arleigh Burke and DCI Allen Dulles - produced a highly critical series of narratives and memoranda. This Electronic Briefing Book provides excerpted passages from eight key documents, substantial portions of which were previously unavailable in the censored versions of the Taylor Commission report released in 1977 and 1986.
Venona - The U.S. Army's Signal Intelligence Service, the precursor to the National Security Agency, began a secret program in February 1943 later codenamed VENONA. The mission of this small program was to examine and exploit Soviet diplomatic communications but after the program began, the message traffic included espionage efforts as well.
Videos the CIA Made to Tell Ronald Reagan About the Soviets - Seven videos the CIA made for President Ronald Reagan - The Soviet Space Program," Afghanistan: the Gallant Struggle," Andropov Succession," Soviet Internal Propaganda," The Soviet Media's Portrayal of America," The Chernobyl Accident," and The Moscow Summit - were posted on YouTube by the CIA in November 2011 in conjunction with a report on Reagan's use of intelligence during his presidency.
Vietnam Histories (CIA) - This release consists of six declassified histories volumes and describes the CIA's role in Indochina during the Vietnam War. These histories written by Thomas L. Ahern, Jr., are based on extensive research in CIA records and on oral history interviews of participants. The release totals some 1,600 pages and represents the largest amount of Vietnam-era CIA documents yet declassified.
Vietnam War Declassification Project - To commemorate the 25th anniversary of the fall of Phnom Penh and Saigon, the staff of the Gerald R. Ford Library reviewed for possible declassification nearly 40,000 pages of National Security Adviser files. This exhibit illustrates the wealth of material now available for research.
Vietnam War Veteran John Kerry's Testimony Before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (22 Apr 1971) - By April 1971, with at least seven legislative proposals relating to the Vietnam war under consideration, the Senate Foreign Relations Committee chaired by Senator William Fulbright (Democrat-Arkansas) began to hear testimony. On the third day of hearings, six members of the committee heard comments by John Kerry, a leader of the major veterans organization opposing continuation of the war. Kerry was the only representative of Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) who testified on April 22, but others in VVAW were in the audience and at times supported his remarks with applause.
W.E.B. DuBois - This site showcases various aspects of Du Bois' life and thinking. The Sources page provides links to freely available texts written by and about Du Bois, ranging from sociological and literary works to those of biography and political activism. The About page lists links to sources covering numerous aspects of his life and biography. On the Research page are links to the full texts of several hard-to-find-online essays by DuBois housed on this site.
War Behind Closed Doors - This PBS Frontline report on U.S. planning for war on Iraq aired 20 Feb 03. Interviews with key Republican insiders, foreign policy analysts, and longtime White House observers; chronology, readings and links, tapes and transcripts, press reaction.
WarLaw - Timelines and resources on Israel, Iran, Iraq, Vietnam, political prisoners, and the harassment of political oppoonents. From Charles Judson Harwood, Jr.
watergate.info - Watergate is the general term used to describe a complex web of political scandals between 1972 and 1974. The word refers to the Watergate Hotel in Washington D.C. In addition to the hotel, the Watergate complex houses many business offices. It was here that the office of the Democratic National Committee was burgled on June 17th, 1972. The burglary and subsequent cover-up eventually led to moves to impeach President Richard Nixon. Nixon resigned the presidency on 8 August 1974.
Watergate Revisited - Look back at TIME's coverage of the scandal in words, pictures and cartoons from 38 issues of the magazine from July 1972 through August 1974.
Weather Underground Organization (Weathermen) - The Chicago Office of the FBI prepared a summary in 1976 discussing the main activities of the Weather Underground Organization, also known as Weatherman. This group described itself as a revolutionary organization of communist men and women. The FBI's analysis of its motivations, beliefs, and international travels are outlined in this summary.
William Lyon Mackenzie King (1974-1950) - Dominant Canadian political leader from the 1920s through the 1940s. He served as the tenth Prime Minister of Canada from December 29, 1921 to June 28, 1926; from September 25, 1926 to August 7, 1930; and from October 23, 1935 to November 15, 1948. A Liberal with 22 years in office, he was longest-serving Prime Minister in Canadian history. Trained in law and social work, he was keenly interested in the human condition (as a boy, his motto was "Help those that cannot help themselves"), and played a major role in laying the foundations of the Canadian welfare state.
World History Archives - A collection of documents for teaching and understanding world history from a working class perspective.
World War I Document Archive - Conventions, treaties, official papers, documents, personal reminiscences, image archive, and biographical dictionary.
Yasukuni Shrine - A Shinto shrine located in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan. It was founded by Emperor Meiji to commemorate individuals who had died in service of the Empire of Japan during the Meiji Restoration. The shrine's purpose has been expanded over the years; the deities enshrined at the Honden shrine within Yasukuni currently include more than 2,466,000 individuals who died in conflicts spanning from the Boshin War of 1867 to the end of World War II. Its museum has come into great controversy owing to its revisionist depiction of Japanese history, particularly of the militarist period from 1931-1945, in which is perceived as denying Japanese war crimes and glorifying Japan's militarist past.
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