Accessible Archives - Making available vast quantities of archived historical information, previously furnished only in microformat, hard copy form or as images only. Also see the Blog. Accessible Archives' titles are in use by universities, historical societies, primary/middle/secondary schools, individuals and research libraries throughout the world, including:
Africans in America - A companion to Africans in America, a six-hour public television series. The Web site chronicles the history of racial slavery in the United States - from the start of the Atlantic slave trade in the 16th century to the end of the American Civil War in 1865. The site is structured into four parts, corresponding to the periods covered by the episodes of the companion television series. For each part, there is a narrative, which relates the history of the period and provides links to specific entries in the Resource Bank, a compilation of over 400 items, comprised of People and Events entries (in-depth biographies and historical notes), Historical Documents (annotated visual materials and texts), and Modern Voices (commentaries excerpted from the original interviews with experts who appeared on-camera in the television series).
Airwars - Monitoring the international coalition's airstrikes against Islamic State (Daesh) in Iraq and Syria. Archiving official reports of the war. Verifying claims of non-combatant civilian casualties. Promoting accountability of the US and its allies.
Alger Hiss Story - Created with grants from The Alger Hiss Research and Publication Project of the Nation Institute. Recreates one of the most important legal cases in US history. This site is compiling a list of books of commentary and interpretation, pro- and anti-Hiss, that the case inspired. Where possible, the site undertakes original research, interviewing participants and commentators; it also invites contributions from site visitors who can help extend the record.
American Notes: Travels in America, 1750-1920 (Library of Congress) - Comprises 253 published narratives by Americans and foreign visitors recounting their travels in the colonies and the United States and their observations and opinions about American peoples, places, and society from about 1750 to 1920. Also included is the thirty-two-volume set of manuscript sources entitled Early Western Travels, 1748-1846, published between 1904 and 1907. The collection includes works by major figures such as Matthew Arnold, Fredrika Bremer, William Cullen Bryant, François-Rene de Chateaubriand, William Cobbett, James Fenimore Cooper, J. Hector St. John de Crèvecoeur, Charles Dickens, Washington Irving, Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Sir Charles Lyell, William Lyon Mackenzie, Andre Michaux, Thomas Nuttall, Frederick Law Olmsted, and Robert Louis Stevenson.
American Presidency Project - Established in 1999 as a collaboration between John T. Woolley and Gerhard Peters at the University of California, Santa Barbara. An online resource that has consolidated, coded, and organized into a single searchable database that contains over 102,000 documents related to the study of the Presidency.
American President: An Online Resource Reference - The University of Virginia's Miller Center of Public Affairs researches and reports on issues of national importance to the governance of the United States, with special attention to the central role and history of the presidency.
American Revolution, The - Historical maps covering the American War of Independence provided the the U.S. Marine Corps.
Archiving Early America - A unique array of primary source material from 18th Century America. Scenes and portraits from original newspapers, maps and writings come to life on your screen just as they appeared to this country's forebears more than two centuries ago.
Assata Shakur Speaks - On May 2 1973, Black Panther activist Assata Shakur (fsn) JoAnne Chesimard, was pulled over by the New Jersey State Police, shot twice and then charged with murder of a police officer. Assata spent six and a half years in prison under brutal circumstances before escaping out of the maximum security wing of the Clinton Correctional Facility for Women in New Jersey in 1979 and moving to Cuba.
Atomic Archive - Follow a timeline that takes you down the path of the nuclear past, from the 1920s to the present. Read biographies of A-bomb father Robert Oppenheimer and other key scientists of the nuclear age. See the Trinity Test through Enrico Fermi's eye as you read his first hand account of that history making event. Examine maps of the damage to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and summaries of arms-control treaties. View a gallery of exclusive photographs and animations of nuclear physics.
Atomic Bomb Decision - Documents useful in reconstructing the thinking that led to the bombing of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Battle of Britain History Site - These pages will catalogue the official reports of the most important event in Royal Air Force history, the Battle fought over Britain between the 10th July and 31st October 1940. The complete Fighter Command Operational Diaries for the period will be published in full, day by day over the actual period the Battle 60 years ago. Supporting this official text are a series of pages detailing such facets of the Battle as the Commanders, the aircraft and the changes in tactics on both sides.
Behind the Bushes - Chronology of a family. Backgrounders and information on George W. Bush, the Bush extended family, and the entourage gathered around them, including Richard Armitage, Dick Cheney, Terrance Gainer, Colin Powell, Michael Powell and many others.
Black Ships and Samurai - An exhibit from MIT featuring some 200 Japanese and American graphics depicting the 1853-1854 mission by Commodore Matthew Perry that led to the opening of Japan to the outside world. The core exhibit brings together a wealth of rarely seen graphics from both sides of this historical encounter and interweaves these with an original text by John W. Dower.
BlackPast - An online guide to African American history.
BoondocksNet - Eclectic, wide ranging site, devoted primarily to writings, graphics, political cartoons, and other resources exposing U.S. imperialism thoughout history.
British Civil Wars, Commonwealth and Protectorate 1638-1660 - Beginning with the signing of the Scottish National Covenant of 1638 and ending with the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660, this site explores the turmoil of the Civil Wars and Interregnum, and the constitutional experiments of the Commonwealth and Protectorate period of the 1650s. Also called The Wars of the Three Kingdoms and the English Revolution, the British Civil Wars and Commonwealth period laid the foundations of the modern British constitution and underlies many of the political tensions in today's United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland.
British History Online - Digital library of text and information about people, places and businesses from the medieval and early modern period, built by the Institute of Historical Research and the History of Parliament Trust.
British Pathe - Preview items from the entire 3500 hour British Pathe Film Archive covering news, sport, social history and entertainment from 1896 to 1970.
Canadian Wartime Experience - Documentary legacy of Canada at war. Provides access to a portion of wartime-related textual records and photographs that have been selected from larger collections within the holdings of the University of Manitoba Archives & Special Collections and digitized for research purposes.
Casahistoria - Web of topic links for students of modern history.
Chicago Seven (or Eight) Trial - The 1969-70 trial of seven radicals accused of conspiring to incite a riot at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago.
Chinese in California, 1850-1925 - American Memory Library of Congress exhibit illustrating nineteenth and early twentieth century Chinese immigration to California from 1850 to 1925 through 8,000 images and pages of primary source materials. Included are photographs, original art, cartoons and other illustrations; letters, excerpts from diaries, business records, and legal documents; as well as pamphlets, broadsides, speeches, sheet music, and other printed matter.
Christmas Truce - Christmas truce was a series of widespread unofficial ceasefires that took place along the Western Front around Christmas 1914, during the First World War. Through the week leading up to Christmas, parties of German and British soldiers began to exchange seasonal greetings and songs between their trenches; on occasion, the tension was reduced to the point that individuals would walk across to talk to their opposite numbers bearing gifts. On Christmas Eve and Christmas Day, many soldiers from both sides - as well as, to a lesser degree, from French units - independently ventured into "no man's land", where they mingled, exchanging food and souvenirs. As well as joint burial ceremonies, several meetings ended in carol-singing. Troops from both sides were also friendly enough to play games of football with one another.
Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers - Search and view newspaper pages from 1860-1922 and find information about American newspapers published between 1690-present. Chronicling America is sponsored jointly by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Library of Congress as part of the National Digital Newspaper Program (NDNP).
Citizen King - Citizen King [the PBS 'American Experience' documentary] shows how, in his crusade for economic justice and an end to the Vietnam war, Martin Luther King, Jr., found himself at odds not only with white American leadership, but also with many influential black leaders. He and his family were harassed daily with threats against his life and theirs. He questioned the values of his country and its preoccupation with material gain, and was distraught by the silence of a great many of his fellow Christian clergy. Yet through it all, he remained steadfast in his profound spiritual commitment to the human rights of all people and to the way of non-violence and creative peacemaking.
Civil War, The - Extensive source of original U.S. Civil War resources. This site has over 7,000 pages of original Civil War content, and is full of incredible photographs, original illustrations, and eye-witness accounts of the defining moments of this historic struggle.
Cold War International History Project (CWIHP) - Disseminates new information and perspectives on the history of the Cold War, in particular new findings from previously inaccessible sources on "the other side" - the former Communist world.
Commanding Heights: The Battle for the World Economy - The purpose of this site is to promote better understanding of globalization, world trade and economic development, including the forces, values, events, and ideas that have shaped the present global economic system. Provides a complete netcast of the six-hour television program as originally broadcast by PBS -- in three two-hour episodes.
Computer History Museum - Dedicated to the preservation and celebration of computing history. It is home to one of the largest collections of computing artifacts in the world, a collection comprising over 3,000 artifacts, 2,000 films and videotapes, 5,000 photographs, 2,000 linear feet of cataloged documentation and gigabytes of software. The collection is housed in a visible storage building in Mountain View, California, in the heart of Silicon Valley.
Crisis at Fort Sumter - Using text, images, and sound, this interactive historical simulation reconstructs the dilemmas of policy formation and decision making in the period between Abraham Lincoln's election in November 1860 and the battle of Fort Sumter in April 1861. The program primarily focuses on Lincoln, both as President-elect and as President. You will place yourself in Lincoln's position, consider the events that transpire, and choose a course of action at five critical junctures, called "problems."
Dag Hammarskjöld Library - Research guide dedicated to Dag Hammarskjöld, the second Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Das Bundesarchiv - Document, and save as archives, testimonies to, and evidence of, modern and contemporary German history and make this information available to everyone. Maintain the civil and military archives of the Federal Republic of Germany and its predecessors, the German Confederation, the German Reich and the German Democratic Republic, on the basis of the Federal Archives Act, and supplements these with archives of private origin.
Days of Cal - A virtual tour through the history of the University of California, Berkeley.
Denmark Vesey - Wikipedia backgrounder on free black and former slave in Charleston, South Carolina who is noted for his plan for 'the rising.' Historian Richard Wade maintains that the Vesey Conspiracy was mostly "angry talk," and that the plot was not well founded for action. Vesey and his followers were said to be planning to kill slaveholders in Charleston, liberate the slaves, and sail to the black republic of Haiti for refuge. Not one white person was killed or injured. Vesey and five slaves were among the first group of men rapidly judged guilty by the secret proceedings of a city-appointed Court and condemned to death; they were executed by hanging on July 2, 1822. In 1822 the city-appointed Court of Magistrates and Freeholders continued to review cases after Vesey's execution and some public criticism; twice as many slaves were arrested in July as in June, and nearly 30 more were executed. The Court continued into August. They examined a total of 131 men, convicted 67 of conspiracy, hanged 35 (including Vesey), deported 31 men, reviewed and acquitted 27, and questioned and released 38.
Developers, The (James Lorimer) - Based on detailed investigation of development in 14 Canadian cities supplemented by material from interviews, financial reports, newspaper files and trade publications, The Developers offers a comprehensive picture of a complex industry. Portraits of developers like Ottawa's Robert Campeau and Toronto's Bruce McLaughlin are coupled with stories of huge corporations such as Genstar and Cadillac Fairview. Lorimer looks at each in turn, explaining exactly how the developers are able to make enormous profits building the new corporate city. The Developers is a revealing account of the men and the companies behind the amazing growth of Canadian cities since the Second World War.
Digital History - Enhances history teaching and research through primary sources, an online textbook, extensive reference resources, and interactive materials.
Discovering American Women's History Online - Provides access to digital collections of primary sources (photos, letters, diaries, artifacts, etc.) that document the history of women in the United States. These diverse collections range from Ancestral Pueblo pottery to Katrina Thomas's photographs of ethnic weddings from the late 20th century." Search, or browse by subject, state, time period, or primary source type. Maintained by librarian Ken Middleton of Middle Tennessee State University.
Eighteenthth-Century Resources - Resources include information on literature, history, art, music, religion, economics, philosophy, and so on, from around the world, as well as the home pages of societies and people who work on eighteenth-century topics.
Enola Gay Controversy - On August 6, 1945, Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., piloting the B-29 bomber Enola Gay, dropped the first atom bomb on Hiroshima. That event has a curious double meaning in our history. On the one hand, it successfully ended a long and bloody World War II and was almost universally applauded at that time for saving many lives in the long run. On the other hand, some people have said that it inflicted horrible carnage on the civilian population of a country on the verge of surrender or total defeat anyway and inaugurated a nuclear arms race and the Cold War - making it the subject of much debate in our time. The controversy over how history should represent dropping an atom bomb on Japan came to a head in 1994 when the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum drafted an exhibit entitled The Crossroads: The End of World War II, the Atomic Bomb and the Cold War around the refurbished Enola Gay to mark the 50th anniversary of the end of the war in 1995.
Exploring the French Revolution - Provides an introduction to the French Revolution as well as an extraordinary archive of some of the most important documentary evidence from the Revolution, including 338 texts, 245 images, and a number of maps and songs. A collaboration of the Center for History and New Media, George Mason University and the American Social History Project, City University of New York.
For European Recovery: The 50th Anniversary of the Marshall Plan - The Library of Congress presents this display on the origins and effects of the Marshall Plan. It features photographs and cartoons from the Prints and Photographs Division and items from the papers of Averell Harriman, the ERP special representative in Europe from 1948 to 1950, whose collection in the Library's Manuscript Division contains photographs, letters, memos, and printed material that document the early days of this international initiative.
Foreign Relations of the United States (U.S. Department of State) - Presents the official documentary historical record of major U.S. foreign policy decisions and significant diplomatic activity. Foreign Relations volumes contain documents from Presidential libraries, Departments of State and Defense, National Security Council, Central Intelligence Agency, Agency for International Development, and other foreign affairs agencies as well as the private papers of individuals involved in formulating U.S. foreign policy.
Freedmen's Bureau Online - The Freedmen's Bureau, was established in the War Department by an act of March 3, 1865. The Bureau supervised all relief and educational activities relating to refugees and freedmen, including issuing rations, clothing and medicine. The Bureau also assumed custody of confiscated lands or property in the former Confederate States, border states, District of Columbia, and Indian Territory. The bureau records were created or maintained by bureau headquarters, the assistant commissioners and the state superintendents of education and included personnel records and a variety of standard reports concerning bureau programs and conditions in the states.
From Wounded Knee to Libya: A Century of U.S. Military Interventions - An extensive listing in chronlogical order of U.S. military interventions from 1890 to present. Among sources used, beside news reports, are the Congressional Record (23 June 1969), 180 Landings by the U.S. Marine Corp History Division, Ege & Makhijani in Counterspy (July-Aug, 1982), "Instances of Use of United States Forces Abroad, 1798-1993" by Ellen C. Collier of the Library of Congress Congressional Research Service, and Ellsberg in Protest & Survive.
Galileo Project - A hypertext source of information on the life and work of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) and the science of his time.
Gamal Abdel Nasser - Established in cooperation with Bibliotheca Alexandrina and the Gamal Abdel Nasser Foundation, this site includes a thousands of digital audio-visual documents on Gamal Abdel Nasser, leader of the Revolution of July 1952, and considered the first Egyptian Republic elected president after the rule of King Farouk. Each is accompanied by detailed search options.
German Guerilla - Archiving documents and analysis about the urban guerilla experience in the Federal Republic of Germany.
German Hyperinflation, 1923 - Excerpt from Paper Money by Adam Smith," (George J.W. Goodman), pp. 57-62. In the mid-1960s, money manager George J.W. Goodman began to write a series of irreverent and witty columns for New York magazine under the borrowed name of capitalism's founding theorist, Adam Smith. As Adam Smith," Goodman went on to write several bestsellers about economics, the stock market, and global capitalism, among them The Money Game, Supermoney, and Paper Money, from which this account of the Weimar Republic's disastrous hyperinflation is excerpted.
Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - Devoted to the improvement of history education. The Institute has developed an array of programs for schools, teachers, and students that now operate in all fifty states, including a website that features more than 60,000 unique historical documents in the Gilder Lehrman Collection. The Collection includes more than 60,000 letters, diaries, maps, pamphlets, printed books, newspapers, photographs, and ephemera that document the political, social, and economic history of the United States. An extensive resource for educators, students, and scholars, the Collection ranges from 1493 through the twentieth century and is widely considered one of the nation's great archives in the Revolutionary, early national, antebellum, and Civil War periods.
Gotham Center for New York City History - A public educational organization devoted to the history of New York City at The Graduate Center, City University of New York. Also provides additional extensive resource links from these pages:
Guide to Washington, D.C., Materials - This guide consists of materials from the Library of Congress sites and other related web sites. The largest portion of this guide consist of materials from the American Memory Online Collections.
Gunpowder Plot - The Gunpowder Plot of 1605, in earlier centuries often called the Gunpowder Treason Plot, was a failed assassination attempt against King James I of England and VI of Scotland by a group of provincial English Catholics led by Sir Robert Catesby. The plan was to blow up the House of Lords during the State Opening of Parliament on 5 November 1605, the prelude to a popular revolt in the Midlands during which James's nine-year-old daughter, Princess Elizabeth, was to be installed as the Catholic head of state. Catesby may have embarked on the scheme after hopes of securing greater religious tolerance under King James had faded, leaving many English Catholics disappointed. His fellow plotters included Thomas Wintour, Robert Wintour, John Wright, Christopher Wright, Guy Fawkes, Robert Keyes, John Grant, Thomas Percy, Sir Ambrose Rookwood, Sir Everard Digby, Sir Francis Tresham and Thomas Bates. Fawkes, who had 10 years of military experience fighting in the Spanish Netherlands in suppression of the Dutch Revolt, was given charge of the explosives. The plot was revealed to the authorities in an anonymous letter sent to William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, on 26 October 1605. During a search of the House of Lords, early in the morning of 5 November 1605, Fawkes was discovered guarding 36 barrels of gunpowder - enough to reduce the House of Lords to rubble - and arrested. Most of the conspirators fled from London as they learned of the plot's discovery, trying to enlist support along the way. Also see this House of Commons Information Fact Sheet.
Guy Fawkes - Guy Fawkes (13 April 1570 - 31 January 1606), also known as Guido Fawkes, the name he adopted while fighting for the Spanish in the Low Countries, belonged to a group of provincial English Catholics who planned the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605.
From Cracked.com: While anarchists may be right that Fawkes was "the only person ever to enter Parliament with honest intentions," they've forgotten what those intentions were. Fawkes wasn't just trying to destroy an 'evil theocracy', he was trying to install one. Fawkes was a fighter for Spain and the Catholic Church. His goal was to end the slightly more egalitarian Protestant revolution in England by restoring Catholic domination.
Haiti: A Slave Revolution 200 Years After 1804 - People's history combating 200 years of racist indoctrination and propaganda about the Haitian Revolution. This online edition is a joint project of the Haiti Support Network (HSN) and the International Action Center (IAC).
Henry VIII - Life, works, essays, articles, additional sources.
Hidden From History - "The time has come to end our complicity in mass murder. Our exposure of the Canadian genocide has simultaneously indicted the social order that gave rise to it. Euro-Canadian Christian society as a whole stands condemned in the dock alongside those persons who ran the Indian residential schools, sterilized and murdered children, spread smallpox, and dug mass graves. Despite their best efforts to ignore this fact and contain the whole matter with pseudo "apologies", the Canadian government and its partner Catholic, Anglican and United churches now face the same kind of historical reckoning that Nazi Germany did after its defeat in 1945: an awakening to their own criminal nature."
Hiroshima - Was it Necessary? - An extensive site with links to additional sources devoted to exploring the various sides in the ongoing debate over this question.
Historic Detroit - A place to learn the stories behind the city's historic places and for photographers, historians and others to share their images and memories about its landmarks.
History Buff - An historical reference to press coverage from the 16th to 20th centuries. Find out how historical events were covered in the press.
History Is a Weapon - This is an online Left reader focusing largely on American resistance history. The readings are organized in sections.
History of the European Union - Based on the General Report on the Activities of the European Union. Presents the chronology of the important accomplishments of the EU and its institutions.
History of the Standard Oil Company - "This work is the outgrowth of an effort on the part of the editors of McClure's Magazine to deal concretely in their pages with the trust question. In order that their readers might have a clear and succinct notion of the processes by which a particular industry passes from the control of the many to that of the few, they decided a few years ago to publish a detailed narrative of the history of the growth of a particular trust. The Standard Oil Trust was chosen for obvious reasons. It was the first in the field, and it has furnished the methods, the charter, and the traditions for its followers. It is the most perfectly developed trust in existence; that is, it satisfies most nearly the trust ideal of entire control of the commodity in which it deals. Its vast profits have led its officers into various allied interests, such as railroads, shipping, gas, copper, iron, steel, as well as into banks and trust companies, and to the acquiring and solidifying of these interests it has applied the methods used in building up the Oil Trust. It has led in the struggle against legislation directed against combinations. Its power in state and Federal government, in the press, in the college, in the pulpit, is generally recognised. The perfection of the organisation of the Standard, the ability and daring with which it has carried out its projects, make it the pre-eminent trust of the world-the one whose story is best fitted to illuminate the subject of combinations of capital." - by Ida M. Tarbell. Copyright, 1904.
HistoryLink: Seattle and King County, Washington - An evolving online encyclopedia of Seattle and King County history. King County is located in the U.S. on Puget Sound in the western portion of the state of Washington. HistoryLink includes several types of content: authoritative, searchable database essays; visual histories; anecdotal "People's Histories;" selected maps and documents; directories of local museums and heritage groups; and a large and growing roster of links to other historical Websites.
Holocaust Denial on Trial - David Irving, a British Holocaust denier, sued American professor Deborah Lipstadt for libel in a 2000 London trial that made headlines around the world. This site is built around the defense's research, trial-room testimony, and the judge's historic opinion which found Irving to be a "right-wing pro-Nazi polemicist" who "deliberately misrepresented and manipulated historical evidence."
Huey Long - In a land of plenty, Huey Long believed that no American should be without an education, a home, an automobile, and job that paid a decent living wage. Huey Long implemented an unprecedented program of modernization and reform in Louisiana - building roads and bridges, providing free public education, expanding voting rights to all citizens, and creating economic opportunity for a majority trapped in poverty.
Immanuel Wallerstein - American sociologist, historical social scientist, and world-systems analyst. His bimonthly commentaries on world affairs are syndicated. Also see Wikipedia entry.
Imperial War Museum (IWM) - A family of five museums: IWM London; IWM North in Trafford, Greater Manchester; IWM Duxford near Cambridge; the Churchill War Rooms in Whitehall, London; and the historic ship HMS Belfast, moored in the Pool of London on the River Thames. The information on this website tells you about its permanent displays, the archives, special exhibitions, forthcoming events, and education programmes.
Indico Commons - The Commons was launched on January 16, 2008, byFlickr with the release of nearly 3,000 photographs from two popular Library of Congress collections. The stated aims of the Commons project are to increase the public's access to publicly held photography collections in civic institutions around the world and to provide a way for the public to contribute historical data pertaining to the collections. More than a dozen museums, public libraries, and other cultural heritage institutions from around the world have joined The Commons, releasing over 12,000 images to be perused, tagged, and researched by the public.
In Our Own Backyard: Resisting Nazi Propaganda in Southern California 1933-1945 - "The Nazi Propaganda period, 1933 to 1945, chronicles a crucial twelve years in American history. This exhibit's story about the local threat to American ideals demonstrates how European events reached across the ocean and affected people in Southern California -- in our own backyard." Features essays and digitized items on topics such as anti-Semitism, the German American Bund, and Hollywood Under Attack. From Oviatt Library, California State University, Northridge.
Influenza 1918 - In September of 1918, soldiers at an army base near Boston suddenly began to die. The cause of death was identified as influenza, but it was unlike any strain ever seen. As the killer virus spread across the country, hospitals overfilled, death carts roamed the streets and helpless city officials dug mass graves. It was the worst epidemic in American history, killing over 600,000--until it disappeared as mysteriously as it had begun.
International Institute of Social History (IISH) - The IISH was founded in 1935. It is one of the world's largest documentary and research institutions in the field of social history in general and the history of the labour movement in particular. Most of the collections are open to the public. Also see IISH Archives.
Internet Modern History Sourcebook - Intended to serve the needs of teachers and students in college survey courses in modern European history and American history, as well as in modern Western Civilization and World Cultures.
J.P. Morgan and World War I - Morgan played a prominent part in financing World War I. Following its outbreak, he made the first loan of $12,000,000 to Russia. In 1915, a loan of $50,000,000 was made to France. The firm's involvement with British and French interests fueled charges the bank was conspiring to maneuver the United States into supporting the Allies in order to rescue its loans. By 1915 it became apparent the war was not going to end quickly, the company decided to forge formal relationships with France. Those dealings became strained over the course of the war as a result of poor personal relations with French emissaries, relationships that were heightened in importance by the unexpected duration of the conflict, its costs, and the complications flowing from American neutrality. Contributing to the tensions was the favoritism displayed by Morgan officials to British interests. His firm was the official purchasing agent for the British government, buying cotton, steel, chemicals and food. Morgan organized a syndicate of about 2200 banks and floated a loan of $500,000,000 to the Allies. The British sold off their holdings of American securities and by late 1916 were dependent on unsecured loans for further purchases. At the beginning of World War I, US Treasury Secretary William McAdoo and others in the Wilson administration were very suspicious of J. P. Morgan & Co.'s enthusiastic role as British agent for purchasing and banking. When the United States entered the war, this gave way to close collaboration, in the course of which Morgan received financial concessions. On 3 July 1915, an intruder, Eric Muenter, entered Morgan's Long Island mansion and shot him twice in an attempt to assassinate him. This was ostensibly in protest of his profiteering from war. Morgan, however, quickly recovered from his wounds. Also see:
J. Robert Oppenheimer Personnel Hearings Transcripts - In December 1953, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) suspended the security clearance of Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer, and after a four-week, closed-door hearing in April and May 1954, formally revoked that clearance. In June 1954, the AEC released a redacted version of the hearing transcript, (see AEC press release), with security classified information deleted, published by the Government Printing Office (GPO) under the title, In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer: Transcript of Hearing before Personnel Security Board. Sixty years later, the Department of Energy has re-reviewed the original transcript and is making available to the public, for the first time, the full text of the transcript in its original form.
Jack Rabin Collection on Alabama Civil Rights and Southern Activists - Some of its components, including copies of records of the Montgomery Improvements Association (MIA) and many hours of oral history of the renowned cival liberties lawyer Clifford Durr, complement major holdings in other American archives. Other components of the Rabin Collection are unique. These include an updated filmed interview of Stokely Carmichael (later known as Kwame Ture) in Montgomery; 450 black-and-white photographs created by the Subversive Unit of the Investigative and Identification Division of the Alabama Department of Public Safety in the course of sit-ins, demonstrations, and marches in several Alabama cities during the early to mid-1960s; and surveillance tapes preserving speeches made variously at an anniversary meeting of the MIA in 1963, at the conclusion of the Selma-to-Montgomery March in 1965, and in Bessemer and Birmingham, Alabama, in the course of the Poor People's Campaign of 1968. Martin Luther King and Ralph Abernathy are among many leading lights of the civil rights movement heard on these tapes.
Jasenovac Research Institute (JRI) - A human rights organization and research institute committed to establishing the truth about the Holocaust in Yugoslavia and dedicated to the search for justice for its victims. The JRI promotes research and activities designed to enlighten the world to the crimes of genocide committed at Jasenovac and wartime Yugoslavia against Serbs, Jews and Romas and provides assistance to all groups and individuals who likewise seek justice for these victims.
John F. Kennedy: History, Memory, Legacy: An Interdisciplinary Inquiry - Interdisciplinary discussion and analysis of significant issues of the Kennedy era, including civil rights, space exploration, the nuclear threat, and the influence of the media on presidential politics as well as Kennedy's assassination as presented in 2008 conference held at the University of North Dakota.
Kennedy Assassination - Dedicated to debunking the mass of misinformation and disinformation surrounding the murder of JFK.
Last Hurrah Bookshop - Specializing in political assassinations, conspiracies, and the Kennedy family.
Mary Farrell Foundation (researcher and archivist of the JFK assassination) - More than 1 million pages of scanned government records, including those in the National Archives' JFK collection. The foundation archives include reports and files from the Warren Commission, the House Select Committee on Assassinations and declassified files from the FBI, CIA and other agencies.
Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza - The museum's reading room has access to 40,000 images, documents, recordings and artifacts. There is also an extensive oral history collection of people who played principal roles in the assassination drama as well as hours of local news coverage and home movies.
Warren Commission Hearings and Exhibits - The Warren Commission published 26 volumes of hearings and exhibits within a few months after issuing its Report. Volumes 1 - 5 are hearings conducted by the Commission members in Washington DC. Volumes 6 - 15 are hearings conducted by staff attorneys on location in Dallas, New Orleans, and other locations. Volume 15 also contains an index to names and exhibits. Volumes 16 - 26 contain photographed Commission Exhibits, usually abbreviated to CE (i.e., CE 399).
Warren Report - The President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy was announced by President Johnson on November 29, 1963, one week after the shots rang out in Dallas, and five days after alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald was killed while in police custody. A little under 10 months later, the Warren Commission delivered this 888-page Report. The Report found that Lee Harvey Oswald killed President Kennedy, alone and unaided, and that similarly Oswald's killer Jack Ruby was a 'lone nut.'
Journal of Victorian Culture - Promotes the best work on all aspects of nineteenth-century society, culture, and the material world including: literature, art, performance, politics, science, medicine, technology, lived experience, and ideas. It welcomes submissions which address a broad Victorian studies readership and explore new questions and approaches. Concerned with the long nineteenth century, its legacies, and echoes in the present day, the journal encourages articles which interrogate periodisation, historiography and critical traditions.
King Center - Established in 1968 by Coretta Scott King, The King Center is the official, living memorial dedicated to the advancement of the legacy of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., leader of America's nonviolent movement for justice, equality and peace in the 1950s and 60s.
Lincoln, Abraham (Wikipedia) - Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 - April 15, 1865) was the sixteenth President of the United States. He successfully led the country through its greatest internal crisis, the American Civil War, preserving the Union and ending slavery, only to be assassinated as the war was virtually over. Also see:
21st Century Abe -Abraham Lincoln was born two hundred years ago. But why are we in the 21st century still obsessed with this 19th-century man? What does this popular Abe have to do with the historical Abe?" Includes responses from scholars and artists, and an opportunity for you to add material. From the Rosenbach Museum & Library.
Abraham Lincoln Association Serials - Between 1940 and 1952, the Abraham Lincoln Association published fifty-two issues of The Abraham Lincoln Quarterly, a journal with original articles regarding all facets of Abraham Lincoln's life and the world in which he lived. According to ALA President G. W. Bunn Jr., "Some were factual and contained new material; some were a working over of old material from a new approach or with a conclusion that differed somewhat from the traditional point of view; some were interpretative and valuable for saying better what had been said before." Through the efforts of the Abraham Lincoln Association, all of the issues of The Abraham Lincoln Quarterly are now available in electronic form.
Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress - The complete Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress consists of approximately 20,000 documents. The collection is organized into three General Correspondence series which include incoming and outgoing correspondence and enclosures, drafts of speeches, and notes and printed material. Most of the 20,000 items are from the 1850s through Lincoln's presidential years, 1860-65. Treasures include Lincoln's draft of the Emancipation Proclamation, his March 4, 1865, draft of his second Inaugural Address, and his August 23, 1864, memorandum expressing his expectation of being defeated for re-election in the upcoming presidential contest. The Lincoln Papers are characterized by a large number of correspondents, including friends and associates from Lincoln's Springfield days, well-known political figures and reformers, and local people and organizations writing to their president. In its online presentation, the Abraham Lincoln Papers comprises approximately 61,000 images and 10,000 transcriptions.
Birth of Medicare - A backgrounder from the CBC on Tommy Douglas, perhaps the most influential politician in Canada never to be elected Prime Minister. Douglas pursued his radical ideas relentlessly until they became so mainstream rival politicians claimed them as their own. Called a communist and threatened by in-party fighting, Douglas battled hard to bring the New Democratic Party to legitimacy in its first ten years. He was often criticized for his singular idealism but through it all Douglas was undeterred, convinced that he was helping to create a better, more humane society. Douglas is considered the Father of Medicare in Canada. Also see Tommy Douglas and the NDP.
Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association (JALA) - The only journal devoted exclusively to Lincoln scholarship. In addition to selected scholarly articles-on Lincoln in the popular media, for example, or British reactions to the War- the journal also features photographs and newly discovered Lincoln letters and documents.
Lincoln Institute - Concentrates on providing support and assistance to scholars and groups involved in the study of the life of America's 16th President and the impact he had on the preservation of the Union, the emancipation of black slaves, and the development of democratic principles which have found worldwide application. The Lincoln Institute promotes the development and dissemination of printed materials, broadcast products, conferences and Internet resources on Mr. Lincoln. It encourages scholars to cooperate with one another and to contribute to the development of historical materials and the transcription of primary sources for both physical and virtual display.
Papers of Abraham Lincoln - Comprehensive electronic edition of documents written by and to Abraham Lincoln, as well as reports of his speeches and other writings.
Pennsylvania Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission - "Based at the Civil War Institute at Gettysburg College, the purpose of the Pennsylvania Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission is to organize, arrange, and coordinate bicentennial tributes to Abraham Lincoln in Pennsylvania." Its site features a bicentennial calendar with 2009 events, and material about Lincoln in Pennsylvania, including a timeline, the text of the Gettysburg Address (November 1863), and information about the Lincoln funeral train (which passed through Pennsylvania April 21-24, 1865).
LLNL Atmospheric Nuclear Tests - The U.S. conducted 210 atmospheric nuclear tests between 1945 and 1962, with multiple cameras capturing each event at around 2,400 frames per second. These are the declassified films of tests conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
Manhattan Project Resources - Ajoint collaboration between the Department of Energy's Office of Classification and Office of History and Heritage Resources. This effort is designed to disseminate information and documentation on the Manhattan Project to a broad audience including scholars, students, and the general public.
Marriner Eccles - U.S. banker, economist, and Chairman of the Federal Reserve between 1934 and 1948. Eccles also participated in post-World War II Bretton Woods negotiations that created the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Marriner Eccles is often seen as an early proponent of demand stimulus projects to fend off the ravages of the Great Depression. Later, he became known as a defender of Keynesian ideas, though his ideas predated Keynes's The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money. See Eccles' 1933 Senate Testimony.
Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassination - MLK assassinated at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1968, at the age of 39. On June 10, 1968, James Earl Ray, a fugitive from the Missouri State Penitentiary, was arrested in London at Heathrow Airport, extradited to the United States, and charged with the crime. On March 10, 1969, Ray entered a plea of guilty and was sentenced to 99 years in the Tennessee state penitentiary. Also see US Department of Justice investigation pages.
Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project(Stanford University) - The King Papers Project's principal mission is to publish a definitive fourteen-volume edition of King's most significant correspondence, sermons, speeches, published writings, and unpublished manuscripts.
Mass Violence & Resistance (MV&R) - An interdisciplinary online journal focusing on 20th and 21st century massacres and genocides as well as on local resistance against mass violence. The aim of the journal is to provide reliable information on events that are sometimes difficult to document and that remain deeply rooted in individual and collective memories. Such events can be considered as ongoing, as their impact on national and international arenas continues.
Mathew Brady (1822-1896) - One of the most celebrated 19th century American photographers, best known for his portraits of celebrities and the documentation of the American Civil War. He is credited with being the father of photojournalism. Also see Mathew Brady NY Studio and Mathew Brady.
Meltdown at Three Mile Island - At 4:00 AM on March 28, 1979, a reactor at the Three Mile Island nuclear power facility near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania suddenly overheated, releasing radioactive gases. During the ensuing tension-packed week, scientists scrambled to prevent the nightmare of a meltdown, officials rushed in to calm public fears, and thousands of residents fled to emergency shelters. Equipment failure, human error, and bad luck would conspire to create America's worst nuclear accident. American Experience PBS documentary.
Memorial - A movement which arose in the years of perestroika. Its main task was the awakening and preservation of the societal memory of the severe political persecution in the recent past of the Soviet Union. Memorial is information about the violation of human rights on the territory of the former Soviet Union. This information is valued highly not only by international human rights organizations, but also by international organizations, such as the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, and the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. Memorial is the undertaking of risky observation missions to "hot spots" on the territory of the CIS. Memorial is mountains of factual material, collected in regions of armed conflict. It is painstaking verification and analysis of the collected material, and the preparation and publication of reports on the conditions in Nagorno-Karabakh, Tajikistan, Transdnistria, in the zone of Ossetian-Ingushetian conflict, and, finally, in Chechnya. Memorial is the initiator for the formation of an anti-war front, memorably uniting more than 100 social and political organizations in January 1995. Memorial is an organization for social and legal counseling for refugees and displaced persons in many regions of Russia. It is the collection of information about current political prisoners on the territory of the former Soviet Union. It is an ongoing struggle against ethnic discrimination. Memorial is protests, meetings, and miscellaneous publications that seek to protect freedoms and peace.
Museum Syndicate - A virtual museum featuring almost 70,000 images of art and history.
The My Lai Courts-Martial: 1970 - A site dedicated to the explication of thecourts-martial of Lt. Calley and Ernest Medina resulting from their roles in the massacre at My Lai village. Records from the court-martial, maps, images, Peers Commission Reoprt, essays, and other materials pertinent to the My Lai cases are included.
Nakba Day - For the Palestinians it is an annual day of commemoration [generally commemorated on 15 May] of the displacement that preceded and followed the Israeli Declaration of Independence in 1948. Also see 1948 Palestinian Exodus.
National Museum of American History - One of the Smithsonian Institution museums located on The Mall in Washington D.C. The Museum collects and preserves more than 3 million artifacts-everything from the original Star-Spangled Banner and Abraham Lincoln's top hat to Dizzy Gillespie's angled trumpet and Dorothy's ruby slippers from "The Wizard of Oz."
National Underground Railroad Freedom Center - Source for Underground Railroad information. Educates the public about the historic struggle to abolish human enslavement and secure freedom for all people. The Freedom Center teaches lessons of courage and cooperation from Underground Railroad history to promote collaborative learning, dialogue, and action in order to inspire today's freedom movements.
National Voting Rights Museum & Institute (NVRMI) - Exhibits materials and artifacts from the voting rights struggle in America, especially those that highlight the experiences, which fueled Bloody Sunday, the Selma to Montgomery March, and the Civil Rights Movement throughout the South. The NVRMI provides research forums, community action, and makes presentations that impact or support voting rights issues in America.
Nazi and East German Propaganda - Propaganda was central to Nazi Germany and the German Democratic Republic. The German Propaganda Archive includes both propaganda itself and material produced for the guidance of propagandists. The goal is to help people understand the two great totalitarian systems of the twentieth century by giving them access to the primary material.
Nazi Hunting -In 1979, the United States created the Office of Special Investigations (O.S.I.) within the Department of Justice, giving it the mission of pursuing, investigating and prosecuting any U.S. citizen or resident linked to acts of persecution on behalf of Nazi Germany or its Axis allies. Under civil immigration laws, the O.S.I. seeks to denaturalize individuals who have obtained United States citizenship and ultimately to remove or extradite them to countries where they might stand trial for their crimes. As of 2008, the O.S.I. had successfully prosecuted 107 people linked to Nazi-era war crimes. The New York Times covers the pursuit of Nazi-era war criminals.
Nizkor Project - Gateway to Holocaust literature and resources. Holocaust research guides, Auschwitz-Birkenau, Buchenwald, Dachau, Nuremberg trials, Nazi war criminals, Adolf Eichman, Adolf Hitler, David Irving, Freed Leuchter, Deborah Lipstadt, Ernst Zundel, organizations, archives, bibliographies, and more.
Office of the Historian, U.S. Department of State - Staffed by professional historians who are experts in the history of U.S. foreign policy and the Department of State and possess unparalleled research experience in classified and unclassified government records. The Office's historians work closely with other federal government history offices, the academic historical community, and specialists across the globe. The Office of the Historian is responsible, under law, for the preparation and publication of the official documentary history of U.S. foreign policy in the Foreign Relations of the United States series. In addition, the Office prepares policy-supportive historical studies for Department principals and other agencies. These studies provide essential background information, evaluate how and why policies evolved, identify precedents, and derive lessons learned.
Pacific Northwest Labor and Civil Rights Projects - The gateway to a set of labor and civil rights history projects directed by Professor James N. Gregory at the University of Washington and supported by the Harry Bridges Center for Labor Studies, the Simpson Center for the Humanities, and the Center for the Study of Pacific Northwest. These eleven projects bring together nearly one hundred video oral history interviews and several thousand photographs, documents, and digitized newspaper articles. Included are films, slide shows, and lesson plans for teachers. The projects also feature dozens of historical essays about important issues, events, and people, many written by undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Washington.
Avalon Project Pearl Harbor - Documents: United States Note to Japan November 26, 1941; Message From the President to the Emperor of Japan December 6; Japanese Note to the United States December 7, 1941.
Pearl Harbor Investigation - Collected here are documents from the 23 volume, 40 part, 25,000 page report of Hearings Before the Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack Congress of the United States Seventy-Ninth Congress which was released on July 20, 1946.
Pearl Harbor Radiogram - This urgent radio message was issued by the Commander in Chief of the Pacific Fleet (CINCPAC) minutes after the attack began. Also, hear a selection from President Franklin Roosevelt's Day of Infamy Speech and read President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Address to Congress, December 8, 1941.
People's Century - This twenty-six part television series, broadcast on PBS, offers insight into the events of the 20th Century through the revealing personal testimony of people who were there.
Picturing the Century - One hundred years of photography from the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Immigrants arriving at Ellis Island, the Wright Brothers, building the Empire State Building, a Depression-era soup line, Omaha Beach, the mushroom cloud, Lyndon Johnson taking the Presidential oath, a young marine in Da Nang, footprints on the Moon, war in the Persian Gulf.
POTUS: Presidents of the United States - In this Internet Public Library resource you will find background information, election results, cabinet members, notable events, and some points of interest on each of the presidents. Links to biographies, historical documents, audio and video files, and other presidential sites are also included.
Preserving and Passing on the Digital History of President Barack Obama's Administration
ArchiveSocial - A social media archiving platform, is hosting an open archive consolidating more than a quarter-million White House social media posts that are easily searchable by date, platform, and keyword.
End of Term Web Archive - Captures and saves U.S. Government websites at the end of presidential administrations. Beginning in 2008, EOT has thus far preserved websites from administration changes in 2008 and 2012, and is currently preparing for the 2016 electoral season.
Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States - Compiled and published by the Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration. Project began in 1957 in response to a recommendation of the National Historical Publications Commission. Noting the lack of uniform compilations of messages and papers of the Presidents before this time, the Commission recommended the establishment of an official series in which Presidential writings, addresses, and remarks of a public nature could be made available.
Race for the Super Bomb - At the dawn of the Cold War, the United States initiated a top secret program in New Mexico to build a weapon even more powerful than the atomic bomb dropped on Japan. A world away, at an isolated facility 250 miles from Moscow, the Soviet Union began a similar effort. A web of spies and scientists, intrigue and deception marked the race to develop the hydrogen bomb, a weapon that would change the world. PBS program and website includes special features and additiional resources.
Real History Archives (RHA) - Hidden history. RHA offers documents, articles and links to additional materials to aid history research.
Rebels, Reds, Radicals: Rethinking Canada's Left History (Ian McKay) - In this brilliant and thoroughly engaging new work Ian McKay sets out to revamp the history of Canadian socialism. Drawing on models of left politics in Marx and Gramsci, he outlines a fresh agenda for exploration of the Canadian left. In rejecting the usual paths of sectarian or sentimental histories, McKay draws on contemporary cultural theory to argue for an inventive strategy of "reconnaissance." This important, groundbreaking work combines the highest standards of scholarship, significant new archival research carried out in Canada and Russia, and a broad knowledge of current debates in the field. Rebels, Reds, Radicals is the introduction to McKay's definitive three-volume work on the history of Canadian socialism.
Religion and the Founding of the American Republic - An exhibit at the Library of Congress. The efforts of the Founders of the American nation to define the role of religious faith in public life and the degree to which it could be supported by public officials that was not inconsistent with the revolutionary imperatives of the equality and freedom of all citizens is the central question which this exhibition explores.
Remembering Triangle Factory Fire - This web exhibit presents original documents and secondary sources on the Triangle Fire, held by the Cornell University Library. You will find original documents, oral histories, and photographs. You can hear and read first-hand accounts by survivors and others that will provide a glimpse into the lives of workers and a sense of the horrors of a factory fire that claimed the lives of 146 young workers. A selected bibliography of sources on sweatshops and the Triangle Fire includes sources for teachers of history. Not posted on the site is a partial but extensive transcript of the trial, and documents on subsequent commemorations of the fire.
Renaissance (Annenberg/CPB) - During the era known by this name, Europe emerged from the economic stagnation of the Middle Ages and experienced a time of financial growth. Also, and perhaps most importantly, the Renaissance was an age in which artistic, social, scientific, and political thought turned in new directions. Discover the forces that drove this rebirth in Europe, and in Italy in particular.
Renaissance, the Elizabethan World - More than 70 pages of insight into everyday life in Tudor England - food, occupations, games, pastimes, religion, fashion, manners, attitudes, and education in the time of Queen Elizabeth I and Shakespeare. A reference for writers, students, actors, re-enactors, and Renaissance enthusiasts.
RMS Lusitania - An ocean liner built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland which entered service with the Cunard Line on 26 August 1907. She was named after the ancient Roman province of Lusitania, which is present day Portugal. She was torpedoed by German U-boat U-20 on 7 May 1915 and sank in eighteen minutes, eleven miles (19 km) off the Old Head of Kinsale, Ireland, killing about 1,198 of the 1,959 people aboard. The sinking turned public opinion in many countries against Germany, contributed to the entry of the United States into World War I and became an iconic symbol in recruiting campaigns of why the war was being fought.
Roosevelt, Eleanor: The Eleanor Roosevelt Encyclopedia - A total of 237 entries presented in an A to Z format provide a guide to basic biographical facts about Eleanor Roosevelt and offer insights into her multiple roles in six main areas: as wife and mother, First Lady, humanitarian, diplomat, public communicator, and, perhaps most of all, symbol of the changing position of women in the twentieth century.
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano - President of U.S. during the Great Depression of the 1930s, Roosevelt created the New Deal to provide relief for the unemployed, recovery of the economy, and reform of the economic and banking systems. Although recovery of the economy was incomplete until almost 1940, the programs he initiated such as the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) continue to have instrumental roles in the nation's commerce. One of his most important legacies is the Social Security system. As Britain warred with Nazi Germany, Roosevelt provided Lend-Lease aid to Winston Churchill and the British war effort before America's entry into World War II in December, 1941. On the home front he introduced price controls and rationing, and relocation camps for 120,000 Japanese-Americans. Roosevelt led the United States as it became the 'Arsenal of Democracy'. Roosevelt, working closely with his aide Harry Hopkins, made the United States the principal arms supplier and financier of the Allies. America had a vast expansion of industry, the achievement of full employment, and new opportunities opened for African-Americans and women. The new Conservative coalition argued unemployment disappeared and closed most relief programs like the Works Progress Administration (WPA) and Civilian Conservation Corps. As the Allies neared victory, Roosevelt played a critical role in shaping the post-war world, particularly through the Yalta Conference and the creation of the United Nations. Later, alongside the United States, the Allies defeated Germany, Italy and Japan. Also see:
Art, Culture, and Government: The New Deal at 75 - From the Libray of Congress: "A Presentation of the American Folklife Center in collaboration with the Center for the Book, John W. Kluge Center, the Prints and Photographs Division, and the Digital Reference Team, with the Manuscript Division, the Music Division, the Rare Books Division, and the Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division."
Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library - Conceived and built under President Roosevelt's direction during 1939-40 on 16 acres of land in Hyde Park, New York, donated by the President and his mother, Sara Delano Roosevelt. The library resulted from the President's decision that a separate facility was needed to house the vast quantity of historical papers, books, and memorabilia he had accumulated during a lifetime of public service and private collecting.
Photos: Franklin D. Roosevelt - This photographic collection dates from 1913, when Roosevelt assumed the office of Assistant Secretary of the Navy, through his presidency (1933-45) and World War II, to his fourth inauguration in on January 20, 1945. They are arranged chronologically by date.
Smithsonian American Art Museum's Exhibition "1934: A New Deal for Artists - Celebrates the 75th anniversary of the Public Works of Art Project by drawing on the Smithsonian American Art Museum's unparalleled collection of vibrant artworks created for the program. The paintings in this exhibition are a lasting visual record of America at a specific moment in time. George Gurney, deputy chief curator, organized the exhibition with Ann Prentice Wagner, curatorial associate.
Russian History - A critical guide to web resources relating to Russian history.
Selected Works of Henry A. Wallace - Secretary of Agriculture from 1933 to 1940, during the difficult years of the Great Depression, and Vice President from 1941 to 1945, at the height of World War II, Henry Agard Wallace was one of FDR's most trusted lieutenants. An original thinker and a prolific writer, Henry Wallace's speeches and articles have long been out of print and unavailable to the general public. This website is meant to address that situation.
Sid Lapidus '59 Collection on Liberty and the American Revolution - Features more than 150 books, pamphlets and prints representing the major themes of Lapidus' collecting: the intellectual origins of the American Revolution; the Revolution itself; the early years of the republic; the resulting spread of democratic ideas in the Atlantic world; and the effort to abolish the slave trade in both Great Britain and the United States.
Six-Day War - The Six-Day War, also known as the June War, 1967 Arab-Israeli War, or Third Arab-Israeli War, was fought between June 5 and 10, 1967, by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria. After a period of high tension between Israel and its neighbors, the war began on June 5 with Israel launching surprise air strikes against Arab forces. The outcome was a swift and decisive Israeli victory. Israel took effective control of the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria. Opinions are divided on whether Israel's attack was an act of aggression or a preemptive strike of a defensive nature.
Sophia Smith Collection, The - The Sophia Smith Collection at Smith College is an internationally recognized repository of manuscripts, photographs, periodicals and other primary sources in women's history. Subject strengths include birth control, women's rights, suffrage, the contemporary women's movement, U.S. women working abroad, the arts (especially theatre), the professions (especially journalism and social work), and middle-class family life in nineteenth- and twentieth-century New England.
Spartacus Educational - United Kingdom site providing interesting visual and informational encyclopedic-like coverage of numerous historical topics, including:
Talking History - A weekly broadcast/internet radio program that focuses on all aspects of history.
Targeted Killing - The premeditated killing of an individual by a state organization or institution outside a judicial procedure or a battlefield - a Wikipedia backgrounder.
Television News Archive - The Television News Archive collection at Vanderbilt University is the world's most extensive and complete archive of television news. The collection holds more than 30,000 individual network evening news broadcasts from the major U.S. national broadcast networks: ABC, CBS, NBC, and CNN, and more than 9,000 hours of special news-related programming including ABC's Nightline since 1989.
Timeline of United States Military Operations - Based on the Committee on International Relations (now known as the U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs). Dates show the years in which U.S. government military units participated. Items in bold are the U.S. government wars most often considered to be major conflicts by historians and the general public. Instances where the U.S. government gave aid alone, with no military personnel involvement, are excluded, as are Central Intelligence Agency operations.
Tudor England: 1485 to 1603 - The Tudors are famous because their dynasty was full of colorful characters and big events. Henry VIII and his six wives, the English reformation, the tragic tale of Lady Jane Grey, the great intelligence of Elizabeth I and the artistic accomplishments of her reign. During the sixteenth century, England emerged from the medieval world. It was a time of great change, most notably it marked the end of the Catholic church in England. There was an attendant rise in nationalism, a new spirit of confidence and patriotism swept the country. Great naval exploits began the great English seafaring tradition. Whether as pirates or officers or explorers, Elizabethan sailors controlled the seas.
U.S. Diplomacy Center - A museum center that curates the ways in which diplomacy matters now and has mattered throughout American history.
U.S. Presidential Election of 1860 - The United States presidential election of 1860 was perhaps the most pivotal in American history. A year after John Brown's attempted slave revolt at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, the national debate over slavery had reached a boiling point, and several Southern states were threatening to secede should the Republican Party candidate, Abraham Lincoln, win. Along with its Upper South neighbors, Virginia struggled with both the perceived threat of Northern abolitionism and the fear that secession would trigger war. The four major candidates, meanwhile, reflected a political system in chaos. At its convention, the Democratic Party split into two factions, with the Northern Democrats nominating U.S. senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, a moderate on slavery, and the Southern Democrats nominating the U.S. vice president, John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky, on a proslavery, states' rights platform. After the demise of the Whig Party, many of its former members went to the Constitutional Union Party, which nominated John Bell of Tennessee and advocated compromise. The Republicans, who opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories, best exploited the circumstances, winning 180 electoral votes and 39.8 percent of the popular vote. Reflecting Virginia's moderation, however, the state was one of only three to favor Bell. In the end, Lincoln's election led directly to South Carolina's secession and the American Civil War (1861–1865).
U.S. Senate Historical Office - Serving as the Senate's institutional memory, the Historical Office collects and provides information on important events, precedents, dates, statistics, and historical comparisons of current and past Senate activities for use by members and staff, the media, scholars, and the general public.
University of Georgia Press Georgia History Ebook Project - Includes early and seminal works on Georgia's history and culture, many published in the 1950s and 1960s that have long been out of print. Users also have the option of ordering print copies of these titles from the University of Georgia Press.
USS Liberty - During the Six Day War between Israel and the Arab States, the American intelligence ship USS Liberty was attacked for 7 minutes in international waters by Israeli aircraft and motor torpedo boats. Thirty-four men died and 172 were wounded. The attack has been a matter of controversy ever since. This site presents historical information on the event and links to additional resources.
Václav Havel - Official site of Czech writer and dramatist, ninth and last President of Czechoslovakia (1989-1992), and first President of the Czech Republic (1993-2003).
Veterans History Project - The Veterans History Project covers World War I, World War II, and the Korean, Vietnam, and Persian Gulf wars. It includes all U.S. participants in those wars - men and women, civilian and military. It documents the contributions of civilian volunteers, support staff, and war industry workers as well as the experiences of military personnel from all ranks and all branches of service--the Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy, as well as the U.S. Coast Guard and Merchant Marine.
Victorian London - A resource for anyone interested in how life was lived in Victorian London.
Victorian History - "An idiosyncratic selection of short bits about elements of Victorian history."
Victorian Web - Literature, history and culture in the Age of Victoria.
Virginia Act for Establishing Religious Freedom (Thomas Jefferson) - This bill, drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1777, first appeared in the form of a broadside, printed in Williamsburg in 1779. It was enacted in 1786. Thomas Jefferson drafted The Virginia Act for Establishing Religious Freedom in 1779 three years after he wrote the Declaration of Independence. The act was not passed by the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Virginia until 1786. Jefferson was by then in Paris as the U.S. Ambassador to France. The Act was resisted by a group headed by Patrick Henry who sought to pass a bill that would have assessed all the citizens of Virginia to support a plural establishment. Also see James Madison's Memorial and Remonstrance Against Religious Assessments which was, and remains, a powerful argument against state supported religion. It was written in 1785, just a few months before the General Assembly passed Jefferson's religious freedom bill.
Virtual New York (VHY) - Devoted to the history of New York City and its people. Produced by the New Media Lab at the Graduate Center, City University of New York, VNY offers resources on New York City's past unavailable elsewhere on the Web and, informed by the latest scholarship, new ways to understand that history.
Voice of Hibakusha - Eye-witness accounts of the bombing of Hiroshima, from the video Hiroshima Witness produced by Hiroshima Peace Cultural Center and NHK.
Washington Decoded - An online monthly, began featuring original articles and book reviews about current American history.
Washington Post Archives - The archives contain stories from The Washington Post as far back as January 1977 and as current as two weeks ago.
White House Museum - Unofficial virtual museum of the U.S. presidential residence. This online tour will take you through more than 140 areas in the grounds and mansion of the White House with photos and illustrations going back more than 200 years.
Wilson Center Digital Archive - International history declassified. Contains once-secret documents from governments all across the globe, uncovering new sources and providing fresh insights into the history of international relations and diplomacy. It collects the research of three Wilson Center projects which focus on the interrelated histories of the Cold War, Korea, and Nuclear Proliferation.
Working Class Movement Library (WCML) - A collection of English language books, periodicals, pamphlets, archives and artefacts, concerned with the activities, expression and enquiries of the labour movement, its allies and its enemies, since the late 1700s.
Workhouse - History of the UK workhouse. The Oxford Dictionary's first record of the word workhouse dates back to 1652 in Exeter: "The said house to bee converted for a workhouse for the poore of this cittye and also a house of correction for the vagrant and disorderly people within this cittye." The workhouse era ended, officially at least, on 1st April 1930; the 643 Boards of Guardians were abolished and their responsibilities passed to local authorities. Some workhouse buildings were just demolished or fell into disuse. Others were renamed and adapted for other use such as hospitals or homes for the elderly. For many inmates of these institutions, however, the name was all that did change, and life improved relatively little during the 1930s and 40s. Even after the introduction of the National Health Service in 1948, things improved only slowly.
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