ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) - A collection of databases collated or developed by the US EPA National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT). More than 200 sources of publicly available data on environmental chemicals have been brought together and made searchable by chemical name and other identifiers, and by chemical structure. Data includes chemical structure, physico-chemical values, in vitro assay data and in vivo toxicology data. Chemicals include, but are not limited to, high and medium production volume industrial chemicals, pesticides (active and inert ingredients), and potential ground and drinking water contaminants.
ATSDR ToxFAQs - A series of summaries about hazardous substances developed by the ATSDR Division of Toxicology. Information for this series is excerpted from the ATSDR Toxicological Profiles and Public Health Statements. Each fact sheet serves as a quick and easy to understand guide. Answers are provided to the most frequently asked questions (FAQs) about exposure to hazardous substances found around hazardous waste sites and the effects of exposure on human health.
Basel Action Network (BAN) - An international network of activists seeking to put an end to economically motivated toxic waste export and dumping - particularly hazardous waste exports from rich industrialized countries to poorer, less-industrialized countries.
Bay Bridge Oil Spill Maps - See the areas affected by the 58,000 gallons of fuel that spilled into the bay after a container ship rammed the Bay Bridge.
Beyond Pesticides - Works with allies in protecting public health and the environment to lead the transition to a world free of toxic pesticides. With the information provided by Beyond Pesticides, people may not only be able to make informed choices and adopt practices that protect themselves and their families from unnecessary exposure to pesticides, but they will be able to effect changes on community-wide pest management decisions and policies that govern pesticide use, such as pesticide uses in parks, schools, for community insect control and along roadsides. Beyond Pesticides believes that people must have a voice in decisions which affect them directly.
Breathing Earth - Displays the carbon dioxide emission levels of every country in the world, as well as their birth and death rates - in real time.
Briggs Group - Marine pollution control and environmental services. Also provides a comprehensive environmental service package covering pollution control, emergency oil, chemical and fuel response and response equipment packages.
California Air Toxics Program - Establishes the process for the identification and control of toxic air contaminants and includes provisions to make the public aware of significant toxic exposures and for reducing risk.
Carbon Pollution Standards - Official information on EPA's efforts to issue standards that address carbon pollution from new and existing power plants, including modified power plants.
Carcinogens - U.S. Department of Health and Human Services report - an informational scientific and public health document that identifies and discusses substances (including agents, mixtures, or exposure substances) that may pose a carcinogenic hazard to human health.
Center for Clean Air Policy - Founded by a bipartisan group of state governors, the Center for Clean Air Policy promotes and implements solutions to major environmental and energy problems that balance environmental and economic interests.
Center for Ethics and Toxics (CETOS) - A project of the Tides Center. An environmental group working on three interrelated issues: 1) Toxicity from non-consensual chemical exposure, 2) radical transformation agculture with the use of biotechnology, and 3) restructuring humankind through use of genetic technologies at early stages of life.
CERCLA Overview - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly known as Superfund, was enacted by Congress on December 11, 1980. This law created a tax on the chemical and petroleum industries and provided broad Federal authority to respond directly to releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that may endanger public health or the environment. Over five years, $1.6 billion was collected and the tax went to a trust fund for cleaning up abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste sites.
CERCLA List of Priority Hazardous Substances - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) section 104 (i), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), requires ATSDR and the EPA to prepare a list, in order of priority, of substances that are most commonly found at facilities on the National Priorities List (NPL) and which are determined to pose the most significant potential threat to human health due to their known or suspected toxicity and potential for human exposure at these NPL sites.
CETOS - A project of the Tides Center, is a non-profit environmental group working on four interrelated issues: 1) Toxicity from chemical exposures, especially before and immediately after birth, 2) Deleterious impacts on agriculture and the environment and the genetic alterations of animals and plants, through the intensive application of pesticides, 3) Loss of endangered species caused by the destruction or contamination of habitat with pesticides and other toxic chemicals, and 4) Protection of the genetic integrity of future generations.
Chemicals Policy Initiative - Aims to inform and stimulate discussions leading to implementation of long term integrated government and industry chemicals management policy at the local, state, regional, and federal levels in the United States as well as internationally. Such chemicals policies must be viewed in a holistic and integrated context - to protect worker, community, and consumer health, while stimulating development of safer and cleaner production systems, materials, and products.
Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter 1972 and 1996 Protocol Thereto - Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter. Dumping at sea of waste generated on land and loaded on board specialized dumping vessels had been carried out for several years by industrialized countries before international rules to prevent marine pollution from this practice entered into force in 1974: the Oslo Convention for the North-East Atlantic and in 1975 the London Convention 1972 for marine waters worldwide other than the internal waters of States.
Dioxins & Furans: The Most Toxic Chemicals Known to Science - News and information. Dioxin is a general term that describes a group of hundreds of chemicals that are highly persistent in the environment. The most toxic compound is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin or TCDD. The toxicity of other dioxins and chemicals like PCBs that act like dioxin are measured in relation to TCDD. Dioxin is formed as an unintentional by-product of many industrial processes involving chlorine such as waste incineration, chemical and pesticide manufacturing and pulp and paper bleaching.
Eco Gateway Link Center: Toxic and Hazardous Waste - Comprehensive directory of links, including local, state, federal, and international government agencies, NGOs, professional associations, consultants, media and publications, businesses, materials and equipment providers, retailers, and more.
Enviro$en$e - Part of the U.S. EPA's web site. Provides a single repository for pollution prevention, compliance assurance, and enforcement information and data bases.
Environmental Pollution - An international journal that focuses on papers that report results from original research on the distribution and ecological effects of pollutants in air, water and soil environments and new techniques for their study and measurement.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - EPA's mandate includes preventing pollution and reducing risk in communities, homes, workplaces, and ecosystems. The EPA site is filled with environmental information, resources, and data.
Nonpoint Source Pollution - The Nonpoint Source working group manages regional EPA responsibilities of Section 319 of the Clean Water Act and Section 6217 of the Coastal Zone Act Reuthorization Amendments. Nonpoint source water pollution, also known as polluted runoff, comes from diffuse or scattered sources in the environment rather than from a defined outlet such as a pipe. As water moves across and through the land it picks up and carries away natural and human-made pollutants depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters, and even our underground sources of drinking water.
National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT) - Part of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD). Located in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, NCCT coordinates and implements EPA's research in the field of computational toxicology. NCCT scientists serve as scientific reviewers and advisors by providing technical assistance to other Laboratories and Centers within ORD, to EPA Program Offices and Regions, and to the states. Additionally, NCCT serves as a source of training in computational toxicology by offering seminars, mini-courses, symposia, and staff details.
Pesticide Fact Sheets - The EPA's Office of Pesticides Program works with registrants to recall products whenever products are deemed faulty or substandard or could potentially cause injury to consumers or harm to the environment. Registrants often voluntarily recall products and reformulate or repair potential hazards.
Toxic Release Inventory - A publicly available EPA database that contains information on toxic chemical releases and other waste management activities reported annually by certain covered industry groups as well as federal facilities.
Exxon Valdez (EPA Website) - On March 24, 1989, shortly after midnight, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez struck Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, spilling more than 11 million gallons of crude oil. The spill was the largest in U.S. history and tested the abilities of local, national, and industrial organizations to prepare for, and respond to, a disaster of such magnitude. Many factors complicated the cleanup efforts following the spill. The size of the spill and its remote location, accessible only by helicopter and boat, made government and industry efforts difficult and tested existing plans for dealing with such an event.
Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (NOAA Website) - On March 24, 1989, the Exxon Valdez grounded on Bligh Reef, and spilled nearly 11 million gallons of oil into the biologically rich waters of Prince William Sound. NOAA scientists and spill response experts helped to respond to this spill, and NOAA biologists have been monitoring the long-term effects of the spill and cleanup efforts.
Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council - The Trustee Council was formed to oversee restoration of the injured ecosystem through the use of the $900 million civil settlement. The Council consists of three state and three federal trustees (or their designees). The Council is advised by members of the public and by members of the scientific community.
Federal Select Agent Program - Jointly comprised of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Division of Select Agents and Toxins and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services/ Agriculture Select Agent Services. The Federal Select Agent Program oversees the possession, use and transfer of biological select agents and toxins, which have the potential to pose a severe threat to public, animal or plant health or to animal or plant products.
Fish Advisories - Provided by the U.S. EPA, these advisories tell the public when high concentrations of chemical contaminants have been found in local fish.
Food News - Provides interactive tools and a downloadable shoppers guide to reduce the number of pesticides in their diets.
Guide to Greener Electronics - This Greenpeace guide ranks the 18 top manufacturers of personal computers, mobile phones, TVs and games consoles according to their policies on toxic chemicals, recycling and climate change.
HazardEx - Provides up-to-date information specifically relevant to those companies and individuals responsible or interested in safe working operations within hazardous area environments.
Hazardous Materials Information Resource System (HMIRS) - A Department of Defense (DoD) automated system developed and maintained by the Defense Logistics Agency. HMIRS is the central repository for Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for the United States Government military services and civil agencies. It also contains value-added information input by the service/agency focal points. This value-added data includes HAZCOM warning labels and transportation information. HMIRS provides this data for hazardous materials purchased by the Federal Government through the Department of Defense (DoD) and civil agencies. The system assists Federal Government personnel who handle, store, transport, use, or dispose of hazardous materials.
Hazardous Substances Data Bank Factsheet - HSDB is a toxicology data file on the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET). It focuses on the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced with information on human exposure, industrial hygiene, emergency handling procedures, environmental fate, regulatory requirements, and related areas.
HazMat Management Magazine - Canada's quarterly magazine on everything to do with hazardous and industrial wastes, emergency preparedness, dangerous goods transportation, contaminated site cleanup and related environmental service issues.
International POPs Elimination Network - A global network of public interest non-governmental organizations united in support of a common POPs Elimination Platform. The mission of IPEN is to work for the global elimination of persistent organic pollutants.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) - A joint program of three cooperating organizations - WHO, ILO and UNEP, implementing activities related to chemical safety. WHO is the Executing Agency of the IPCS, whose main roles are to establish the scientific basis for safe use of chemicals, and to strengthen national capabilities and capacities for chemical safety.
Light Brown Apple Moth Project - This moth is reported to feed and develop on more than 200 plant species in 120 plant genera in 50 families. Hosts include fruits (apples, blueberry, peach, pear, strawberry, grapes, citrus), broadleaved weeds (plantain), vegetables (cabbage, corn, pepper, tomatoes), trees (oak, willow, poplar, walnut) and ornamentals (roses, chrysanthemums, dahlia). The State of California has a controversial plan in place to repeatedly spray the Bay Area with the biochemical pesticide Checkmate OLR-F to eradicate it. Also see EPA's Quarantine Exemptions for Light Brown Apple Moth Pheromones and LBAM Spray.com.
Lindane - Lindane is the primary synonym for gamma-Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) also commonly referred to as benzene hexachloride (BHC). Lindane is a nerve poison, an organochlorine pesticide. Lindane is a known carcinogen in the state of California where it has been banned. Lindane is an Endocrine Disrupting Chemical and Persistent Organic Pollutant. Lindane is found in air, water and soil samples throughout the world. Lindane is documented in human breast milk and amniotic fluid. Many countries have banned lindane. Unfortunately, in the United States, it is still widely prescribed and used on children and their families for treating head lice and scabies. It is also used on pets, livestock, fruits and vegetables, cotton, wool, tobacco, plants, trees and as a wood preservative.
MercuryActionNOW - Many Americans are exposed to unsafe levels of mercury from environmental sources, including power plant emissions, by eating contaminated fish. EPA scientists have estimated that over 600,000 infants are born each year overexposed to unhealthy mercury levels in utero. According to widely accepted scientific research, mercury is a potent neurotoxin that can cause developmental and learning disabilities, reduced IQ, impaired motor skills and in adults, cardiovascular disease.
National Drinking Water Contaminant Occurrence Database (NCOD) - Developed to satisfy the statutory requirements set by Congress in the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) amendments. The purpose of the database is to support the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencies's (EPA) decisions related to identifying contaminants for regulation and subsequent regulation development. The NCOD contains occurrence data from both Public Water Systems (PWS) and other sources (like the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System) on physical, chemical, microbial and radiological contaminants for both detections and non-detects.
National Toxicology Program (NTP) - Established by the Secretary of Health and Human Services to coordinate toxicology research and testing activities within the department, to provide information about potentially toxic chemicals to regulatory and research agencies and the public, and to strengthen the science base in toxicology.
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - A source of general industrial hygiene information on several hundred chemicals/classes for workers, employers, and occupational health professionals. The NPG does not contain an analysis of all pertinent data, rather it presents key information and data in abbreviated or tabular form for chemicals or substance groupings (e.g. cyanides, fluorides, manganese compounds) that are found in the work environment. The information found in the NPG should help users recognize and control occupational chemical hazards.
Office of Hazardous Materials Safety - The department within the U.S. Department of Transportation's Research and Special Programs Administration that is responsible for coordinating a national safety program for the transportation of hazardous materials by air, rail, highway and water.
OSHA: Hazardous and Toxic Substances - The OSHA Chemical Sampling Information file contains listings for 1500 substances. The EEPA's TSCA Chemical Substances Inventory lists information on more than 62,000 chemicals or chemical substances. And various libraries maintain files of Material Safety Data Sheets for more than 100,000 substances.
Pesticide Action Network (PAN UK) - Promotes healthy food, agriculture and an environment which will provide food and meet public health needs without dependence on toxic chemicals, and without harm to food producers and agricultural workers.
Poison Help - When accidents happen with chemicals, medicine, or household items, call Poison Help. Get help right away from a local poison expert.
Poison Papers, The - The Poison Papers represent a vast trove of rediscovered chemical industry and regulatory agency documents and correspondence stretching back to the 1920s. Taken as a whole, the papers show that both industry and regulators understood the extraordinary toxicity of many chemical products and worked together to conceal this information from the public and the press. These papers will transform our understanding of the hazards posed by certain chemicals on the market and the fraudulence of some of the regulatory processes relied upon to protect human health and the environment. A project of the Bioscience Resource Project and The Center for Media and Democracy.
Poisonous Plants Informational Database (Cornell University) - This is a growing reference that includes plant images, pictures of affected animals and presentations concerning the botany, chemistry, toxicology, diagnosis and prevention of poisoning of animals by plants and other natural flora (fungi, etc.).
project of Greenpeace that holds polluters accountable for the work they're doing to block the transition from the dirty fossil fuels of the past to the clean energy sources of the future.
Pollution - Pollution news and informaton. Up to date information on world pollution.
Pollution Engineering Online - Balanced coverage of technical news and features to meet the needs of environmental professionals with pollution control responsibilities: air, water, solid and hazardous waste.
Pollution Online - Serves the needs of operators, technicians, engineers, researchers, managers, business executives, owners, and other professionals involved in the control and prevention of pollution from industrial and commercial sources.
RestoretheGulf.gov - Official federal portal for the Deepwater BP oil spill response and recovery. This site provides the public with information on the response, current operations, news and updates, how to file a claim and obtain other assistance, and links to federal, state and local partners
Right-to-Know Network - Numerous databases, text files, and conferences on the environment, housing, and sustainable development. Also, see Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) database of information about releases and transfers of toxic chemicals from manufacturing facilities.
Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS) - The RAIS is designed to provide all risk assessment processes in a transparent forum for the public, subcontractors and State and Federal regulators. Guidance documents, tutorials, databases, historical information and risk models are all housed and integrated on the RAIS. DOE's prime contractor, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC, continues to support the RAIS to maintain the information and to update databases and tools based on new Guidance through a contract with the University of Tennessee. The RAIS server is housed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Roundtable of Toxicology Consultants (RTC) - Membership in RTC is open to toxicologists who are full members of the Society of Toxicology (SOT), the premier and largest organization of toxicologists in the world.
Scorecard - Access local environmental information to find out about local air pollution. Provides information on toxic chemicals released by manufacturing facilities and health risks of air pollution. Ranks and compares pollution situations in various areas across the U.S. Profiles 6,800 chemicals, making it easy to find out where they are used and how hazardous they are.
Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition (SVTC) - Grassroots coalition that for almost has engaged in research, advocacy, and organizing associated with environmental and human health problems caused by the rapid growth of the high-tech electronics industry.
Society of Forensic Toxicologists (SOFT) - An organization composed of practicing forensic toxicologists and those interested in the discipline for the purpose of promoting and developing forensic toxicology.
Society of Toxicology - Professional and scholarly organization of scientists from academic institutions, government, and industry representing the great variety of scientists who practice toxicology in the U.S. and abroad.
Stop the Spray - Thousands of California residents are being sprayed with potentially harmful and partially undisclosed chemicals. Demand safe alternatives to aerial pesticide spraying.
Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) - SAICM is policy framework to promote chemical safety around the world. SAICM has as its overall objective the achievement of the sound management of chemicals throughout their life cycle so that, by 2020, chemicals are produced and used in ways that minimize significant adverse impacts on human health and the environment. This "2020 goal" was adopted by the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 as part of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation.
TERA - TERA helps environmental, industry, and government groups find common ground through the application of good science to risk assessment.
Tox Town - An interactive guide to commonly encountered toxic substances, your health, and the environment.
ToxFAQs - Fact sheet summaries about hazardous substances. Information is excerpted from ATSDR Toxicological Profiles and Public Health Statements. Each fact sheet serves as a quick and easy to understand guide. Answers are provided to the most frequently asked questions (FAQs) about exposure to hazardous substances found around hazardous waste sites and the effects of exposure on human health.
Toxic Substances Control Act - Enacted by U.S. Congress in 1976 to give EPA the ability to track the 75,000 industrial chemicals currently produced or imported into the United States. EPA repeatedly screens these chemicals and can require reporting or testing of those that may pose an environmental or human-health hazard. EPA can ban the manufacture and import of those chemicals that pose an unreasonable risk.
Toxic Substances Hydrology Program - Provides objective scientific information on environmental contamination to improve characterization and management of contaminated sites, to protect human and environmental health, and to reduce potential future contamination problems. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)Toxic Substances Hydrology Program was initiated in 1982 to provide objective and reliable scientific information needed to develop policies and practices that help avoid exposure to toxic substances, mitigate environmental deterioration from contaminants, provide cost-effective cleanup and waste-disposal strategies, and reduce future risk of contamination. Contamination of surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, and the atmosphere by toxic substances is among the most significant issues facing the nation. Contaminants such as excessive nutrients, organic chemicals, metals, and pathogens enter the environment, often inadvertently, via industrial, agricultural, mining, or other human activities. The extent of their migration and their persistence often are difficult to ascertain. Estimates of the costs and time frames for cleanup of contamination and protection of human and environmental health can best be described as astounding, despite continual efforts by governments and industries worldwide to improve environmental technologies.
Toxicological Profile Information Sheet - By Congressional mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) produces "toxicological profiles" for hazardous substances found at National Priorities List (NPL) sites. These hazardous substances are ranked based on frequency of occurrence at NPL sites, toxicity, and potential for human exposure. Toxicological profiles are developed from a priority list of 275 substances. ATSDR also prepares toxicological profiles for the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Energy (DOE) on substances related to federal sites.
Toxics Action Center - Since 1987, Toxics Action Center has helped more than 400 neighborhood groups across New England fight toxic pollution in their communities. The Toxics Action Center works on a variety of issues including cleaning up hazardous waste sites, stopping proposed landfills and incinerators, stopping the spraying of pesticides, pressuring companies to reduce their toxic chemical use, and other issues that threaten the health and safety of residents, neighborhoods and the environment.
Toxics Link - Toxics Link has a main office in New Delhi, and two nodal offices in Mumbai and Chennai. From these, it coordinates a nation-wide network of more than 400 individual and organisational members. Toxics Link has unique expertise in the areas of hazardous, medical and municipal wastes, as well as in specific issues such as the international waste trade, and the emerging issues of pesticides and POPs.
Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) - A publicly available EPA database that contains information on toxic chemical releases and other waste management activities reported annually by certain covered industry groups as well as federal facilities.
Toxipedia - A toxicology encyclopedia offering articles and resources about toxic chemicals (such as pesticides and endocrine disruptors), health conditions, ethical considerations, the history of toxicology, laws and regulation, and more.
TOXLINE - The National Library of Medicine's extensive collection of online bibliographic information covering the biochemical, pharmacological, physiological, and toxicological effects of drugs and other chemicals.
TOXINZ - Internet database containing information regarding toxic compounds and the management of poisoned patients. Under construction to meet Australasian requirements the database contains some 60,000 listed chemical products, pharmaceuticals, plants and hazardous creatures; and is rapidly expanding to accommodate more.
TRI Explorer - Provides access to the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data to help communities identify facilities and chemical disposal or other release patterns that warrant further study and analysis. Combined with hazard and exposure information, the TRI Explorer can be a valuable tool for risk identification.
TTNweb - EPA's technical website for technology transfer and sharing related to air pollution topics.
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), PHMSA - The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration has public responsibilities for safe and secure movement of hazardous materials to industry and consumers by all transportation modes, including the nation's pipelines.
U.S. EPA Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) - Areas of concern include: indoor and outdoor air quality, stationary and mobile sources of air pollution, radon, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, radiation protection, and pollution prevention.
U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs - The EPA works to reduce the risks to human heath and the environment by requiring pesticide registrants to report any potential problems with EPA registered pesticide products and with registrants to recall products whenever products are deemed faulty or substandard or could potentially cause injury to consumers or harm to the environment.
U.S. EPA Superfund Program - The Superfund program was established over 20 years ago to clean up abandoned hazardous waste sites around the U.S. Methods for identifying these hazardous waste sites, selecting cleanup remedies, and re-establishing these locations to productive use have been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) - Coordinates toxicology research and testing activities to provide information about potentially toxic chemicals to regulatory and research agencies and the public.
World Wide Web Virtual Library: Forensic Toxicology - Index covering the use of toxicology in courts of law, most often understood as the analysis of alcohol, drugs, and poisons in body fluids and the interpretation of those analytical results for the benefit of the courts.
KWSnet is an Internet subject directory providing special attention to U.S. national and international news, the arts, computing, culture, environment, law, literature, media, politics, science and technology. Based in San Francisco, California, KWSnet contains over 125,000 annotated links to resources worldwide. Use Search KWSnet, located at the top of each page, to search within this site. Use Ctrl-F (Windows) or ⌘-F (Mac) to search within individual pages.
KWSnet's Zotero Library provides news articles as well as primary and secondary sources and bibliographic information for your research. More information on Zotero, a powerful, easy-to-use research tool, can be found at its site. Also, and highly recommended, subscribe to RSS content for latest updates.
KWSnet is completely non-commercial. It has no commercial objective or emphasis. Instead, it is intended for educational purposes, research, and personal use. It is updated regularly.
KWSnet is IPv6 enabled, HTTPS deployed, and fully HTML5 compliant.
KWSnet may be contacted via email with any comments, suggestions or link submissions. KWSnet is designed and maintained, in its entirety, by Kirk W. Smith.