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A Brief history of the Internet [PDF] - This paper was first published online by the Internet Society in December 2003 and is re-published in ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review because of its historic import. It was written at the urging of its primary editor, the late Barry Leiner. He felt that a factual rendering of the events and activities associated with the development of the early Internet would be a valuable contribution. The contributing authors did their best to incorporate only factual material into this document. There are sure to be many details that have not been captured in the body of the document but it remains one of the most accurate renderings of the early period of development available.
About Us - Promote your website, learn about internet marketing, and
find ways to improve your business' online visibility.
Access - Defends and extends the digital rights of users at risk around the world. By combining innovative policy, user engagement, and direct technical support, it fights for open and secure communications for all.
Analyze ID - Find your competitors websites. Reverse look up websites that are linked to any ID like Adsense, Google Analytics, Amazon Affiliate, Email, Addthis, Clickbank Affiliate, Commission Junction Affiliate, Doubleclick, Linkshare Affiliate, Facebook App, IP, Name Server, Registrar, Amazon Product, Clickbank Product, Commission Junction Product and Linkshare Product.
AOL Postmaster - Find answers to your general questions regarding non-members sending
mail to America Online, as well as our fight against spam.
APNIC - APNIC is one of three Regional Internet Registries currently operating
in the world. It provides allocation and registration services which support the operation of the Internet globally. It is a not-for-profit, membership-based
organisation whose members include Internet Service Providers, National Internet Registries, and similar organisations. APNIC represents
the Asia Pacific region, comprising 62 economies.
ARIN - A non-profit organization established for the purpose of administration and registration
of Internet Protocol (IP) numbers for the following geographical areas: North and South America, the Caribbean and sub-Saharan
Africa. ARIN is one of three Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) worldwide which collectively provide IP registration services
to all regions around the globe, the other two being RIPE NCC (Europe, Middle East, parts of Africa)
and APNIC (Asia Pacific). ARIN: WHOIS Database Search provides a mechanism for finding contact and registration information
for resources registered with ARIN. ARIN's database contains IP addresses, autonomous system [AS] numbers, organizations
or customers that are associated with these resources, and related Points of Contact [POC].
Average Internet Speeds By Country - This interactive global map shows average internet speeds by country. Hover over a country to reveal the average internet speed. Click on a link in the index to see top 10 fastest internet speeds by average, for specific global regions.
Bandwidth Calculator - This bandwidth calculator
can be used to convert bits to Bytes, Kb to KB, Kb to MB, MB to GB and so forth. If you need to convert things like KBps or MBps just
remove the 'ps' part. The calculator assumes that 1KB is 1024 Bytes, 1MB is 1024KB and so forth.
Bandwidth Place - Online destination for all things broadband -- starting with a Speed Test to measure and manage your bandwidth performance. Whether you are at home, at work or on your mobile or wireless device -- you can connect to BandwidthPlace to test your speed without an application download or Flash.
Berkeley Macintosh Users Group (BMUG) - A Macintosh User Group, founded in September 1984 by U.C. Berkeley students including Reese Jones, Raines Cohen and Bernt Wahl to share knowledge of graphical computing, primarily the Apple Macintosh. The group had more than 13,000 members at its peak in 1993, with associated BBSs in Boston and Tokyo, and was the largest independent computer users' group in the world at the time. Some notable members include: John Draper (Captain Crunch), Hassanal Bolkiah (Sultan of Brunei), and Eric Brewer (Inktomi founder).
BITNET - A co-operative U.S. university computer network founded in 1981 by Ira Fuchs at the City University of New York (CUNY) and Greydon Freeman at Yale University. The first network link was between CUNY and Yale.
Bulletin Board System (BBS) - A computer server running software that allows users to connect to the system using a terminal program. Once logged in, the user can perform functions such as uploading and downloading software and data, reading news and bulletins, and exchanging messages with other users through public message boards and sometimes via direct chatting. In the middle to late 1980s, message aggregators and bulk store-and-forward'ers sprung up to provide services such as FidoNet, which is similar to email.
Box - Provides secure online file storage and sharing functionality to over 750,000 registered users,
serving files to millions of people around the world. Box.net's unique platform allows personal and commercial content to be accessible,
sharable, and storable in any format from anywhere.
BrightPlanet - Deep web intelligence: patented technology is the definitive answer to the challenge of harvesting Big Data from the Deep Web.
CenSEARCHip - This is a tool developed by Mark Meiss
and Filippo Menczer at the Indiana University School of Informatics to allow you to explore the differences in the results returned by different
countries' versions of the major search engines.
Censys - A search engine that enables researchers to ask questions about the hosts and networks that compose the Internet. Censys collects data on hosts and websites through daily ZMap and ZGrab scans of the IPv4 address space, in turn maintaining a database of how hosts and websites are configured. Researchers can interact with this data through a search interface, report builder, and SQL engine. Details on the Censys architecture and functionality are available in its research paper.
Center for Digital Democracy (CDC) - Committed to preserving the openness and diversity
of the Internet in the broadband era, and to realizing the full potential of digital communications through the development and encouragement of
noncommercial, public interest programming.
Central Ops - Advanced online Internet utilities: traceroute, nslookup, smart whois, ping,
checkdomain - The place to go on the Internet to see if a domain name is available for almost
any country in the world.
Choosing a DOCTYPE - According to HTML standards, each HTML document
requires a document type declaration. The DOCTYPE begins the HTML document and tells a validator which version of HTML to
use in checking the document's syntax.
comScore, Inc. - Maintains massive proprietary databases that provide a continuous, real-time
measurement of the myriad ways in which the Internet is used and the wide variety of activities that are occurring online.
ConnectNet - Find a place near you where you can use a computer, get on the Internet,
and often get help learning about technology - usually for free.
CyberAge Stalking by Barbara Fullerton - The Internet, as an easy accessible
and affordable tool, opens new avenues for the "traditional stalker." This article provides informatin on cyberstalking and actions you might take
to prevent or to stop it.
Cybercafes - This site contains a database of over 4200 Internet cafes in 148 countries. You
can search by city or country name for a list of cafes found in that location, or click on the map below for quick access to regional listings. Listings
include location (country, city, address), home page URL, and e-mail address.
DAML - The DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML) Program officially
began in August 2000. The goal of the DAML effort is to develop a language and tools to facilitate the concept of the semantic web. Dr.
James Hendler is the DARPA Program Manager for the DAML initiative.
Decentralized Web Summit - Building a Decentralized Web , bringing together architects, activists, artists, archivists and stakeholders from around the world. See Videos page.
Declare the Language of Your Webpage - The <lang=> attribute
can be used to declare the language of a Web page or a portion of a Web page. This is meant to assist search engine spiders, page formatting and
screen reader technology.
Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) - Deep packet inspection (DPI) is the
act of any packet network equipment which is not an endpoint of a communication using non-header content (typically the actual payload) for some
purpose. This is performed as the packet passes an inspection point, searching for protocol non-compliance, viruses, spam, intrusions or predefined
criteria to decide what actions to take on the packet, including collecting statistical information. There are multiple headers for IP packets,
network equipment only needs to use the first of these (the IP header) for normal operation, but use of the second header (TCP, UDP,
etc.) is normally considered to be shallow packet inspection (usually called Stateful Packet Inspection) despite this definition. Deep
Packet Inspection (and filtering) enables advanced network management, user service, and security functions as well as internet data mining,
eavesdropping, and censorship. Although DPI technology has been used for Internet management for many years, some advocates of net neutrality
fear that the technology can be used anticompetitively or to reduce the openness of the Internet. Also see:
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) - The central research and development organization
for the Department of Defense (DoD). It manages and directs selected basic and applied research and
development projects for DoD, and pursues research and technology where risk and payoff are both very high and where success may provide
dramatic advances for traditional military roles and missions.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI) - A character string (a "digital identifier") used to uniquely identify an object such as an electronic document. Metadata about the object is stored in association with the DOI name and this metadata may include a location, such as a URL, where the object can be found. The DOI for a document is permanent, whereas its location and other metadata may change. Referring to an online document by its DOI provides more stable linking than simply referring to it by its URL, because if its URL changes, the publisher need only update the metadata for the DOI to link to the new URL. See Wikipedia.
Documentation of Internet Filtering Worldwide - With this project, the authors
seek to document and analyze a large number of Web pages blocked by various types of filtering regimes, and ultimately, to create a distributed tool
enabling Internet users worldwide to gather and relay such data from their respective locations on the Internet.
Domain Lookup - Retrieve the IP address associated with a domain name
of a web site.
Downdetector - Provides a realtime overview of status information and outages for all kinds of services. We aim to track any service that its users consider vital to their everyday lives, including (but not limited to) internet providers, mobile providers, airlines, public transport and online services.
DSL Reports - Provides information and help on the subject of residential and small business
Dyn - An Internet performance management company. Dyn helps companies monitor, control, and optimize online infrastructure using a best-in-class anycast DNS network and peerless network performance monitoring to provide managed DNS services, web traffic load balancing, uptime monitoring, domain registration, and transactional email delivery. Provides a global network of hundreds of real-time sensors, millions of test-points and rapidly expanding traffic management points-of-presence (POPs) to give you the tools to keep your website, Internet-connected applications, and business operations up and running at all times.
eFax - Now you don't need to keep your computer on to receive faxes, have
a separate phone line, or worry that you'll miss faxes when you're connected to the Internet. Just give your clients your eFax number and
all your faxes will be delivered to your email inbox.
Electronic Frontier Foundation - Organization working to protect civil liberties, privacy, and freedom
of expression in the arena of computers and the Internet.
ENUM - Official web site for NeuStar's ENUM Public Trial. Extensive information
about ENUM, as well as external links to additional ENUM Resources. ENUM (RFC
2916) is the mapping of a telephone number from the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to Internet services.
Escrow - Protects online buyers and sellers from fraud.
European Digital Rights (EDRi) - 35 privacy and civil rights organisations have EDRI membership. They
are based or have offices in 21 different countries in Europe. Members of European Digital Rights have joined forces to defend civil rights
in the information society. The need for cooperation among organizations active in Europe is increasing as more regulation regarding the internet,
copyright and privacy is originating from European institutions, or from International institutions with strong impact in Europe.
FAQ Consortium - Archive for all Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) from Usenet newsgroups;
Fight for the Future - Dedicated to protecting and expanding the Internet's transformative power in by creating civic campaigns that are engaging for millions of people. Alongside internet users everywhere it works to beat back attempts to limit basic rights and freedoms, and empower people to demand technology (and policy) that serves their interests.
Fixed Broadband Deployment Map - This interactive map was created
by the FCC to illustrate the Commission's broadband deployment results found in the Eighth Broadband Progress Report, which uses data underlying the National
Broadband Map, as of June 30, 2011. It shows census block areas of the United States with and without access to fixed broadband of 3 Mbps download
and 768 kbps upload.
Fraud!Org - FTC project that provides consumers the information they need to avoid becoming victims
of telemarketing and Internet fraud.
Free eCommunications Guide - Information on the many completely free ways you can communicate on
the web, including email, long distance calling, conference calling, instant messaging, fax, voicemail and more.
Free Press - Working to create a world where people have the information and opportunities they need to tell their own stories, hold leaders accountable, and participate in policymaking. Fighting to save the free and open Internet, curb runaway media consolidation, protect press freedom, and ensure diverse voices are represented in our media.
Future of the Internet and How to Stop It (by Jonathan Zittrain) - Zittrain's research interests
include battles for control of digital property and content, cryptography, electronic privacy, the roles of intermediaries within Internet architecture,
and the useful and unobtrusive deployment of technology in education. Also see Zittrain's blog.
Certificate Transparency - Google's Certificate Transparency project fixes several structural flaws in the SSL certificate system, which is the main cryptographic system that underlies all HTTPS connections. These flaws weaken the reliability and effectiveness of encrypted Internet connections and can compromise critical TLS/SSL mechanisms, including domain validation, end-to-end encryption, and the chains of trust set up by certificate authorities.
Google Apps for Your Domain - Lets you offer private-labeled email, instant messaging and calendar
accounts to all of your users, so they can share ideas and work more effectively. These services are all unified by the start page, a unique,
dynamic page where your users can preview their inboxes and calendars, browse content and links that you choose, search the web, and further
customize the page to their liking. You can also design and publish web pages for your domain.
Google Correlate - Finds search patterns which correspond with real-world trends.
Google Docs - Create documents, spreadsheets, and presentations online.
Google Earth - Combines satellite imagery, maps and the power of Google Search to
put the world's geographic information at your fingertips.
Google Gears - An open source browser extension that enables web applications to provide offline functionality
Google Indoor Maps - View and navigate floor plans of several
commercial locations such as airports, department stores, malls, and more within Google Maps.
Google Maps - Enables users to quickly and easily create custom maps for personal use or sharing through
search. With this release, creating maps mashups is now as simple as pointing and clicking. From chronicling trips, to sharing tips and documenting
academic endeavors, My Maps empowers users to create content-rich maps that are relevant to their interests, expertise, or personal
Google Press Center - On a monthly, weekly, and sometimes daily basis, this Google
Zeitgeist page is updated to reflect lists, graphs, and other tidbits of information related to Google user search behavior.
Google: Is it down right now? - Having problems with Google.com website today?
Check whether Google server is up or down right now for everyone or just for you.
Inside Search - Get information on Google's newest search features and learn
tips from basic to advanced. For even more on Google search, explore Google's playground of
fun features, or go under the hood to explore the technology
that powers your searches.
Keep My Opt-Outs - An extension for Chrome browser
users who aren't comfortable with personalization of the ads they see on the web. It's a one-step, persistent opt-out of personalized advertising
and related data tracking performed by companies adopting the industry privacy standards for online advertising.
Music - Upload up to 20,000 songs from your personal music collection to listen from any computer
or on your phone, even offline. For free.
Government Requests Transparency Report - Google has created Government
Requests to show the number of government inquiries for information about users and requests to remove content from its services. Also see
Google's interactive Traffic Graphs which provide information about traffic
to Google services around the world. Each graph shows historic traffic patterns for a geographic region and service. By illustrating outages,
this tool visualizes disruptions in the free flow of information, whether it's a government blocking
information or a cable being cut.
We hope this raw data will help facilitate studies about service outages and disruptions.
Guidescope - Helps you take control of the Web by blocking out ads you don't want.
Herdict - A user-driven platform for identifying web blockages as they
happen, including denial of service attacks, censorship, and other filtering. Reporting to Herdict when you can't access the content you
want contributes to our aggregated data that helps us monitor the health of the Internet in real time.
Hideaway.Net - A web portal devoted to online security, the Linux operating system, Internet privacy, and
Hosts File - A hosts file brought to you by Dan Pollock. Use this file to prevent your computer from connecting to selected internet hosts. This is an easy and effective way to protect you from many types of spyware, reduces bandwidth use, blocks certain pop-up traps, prevents user tracking by way of "web bugs" embedded in spam, provides partial protection to IE from certain web-based exploits and blocks most advertising you would otherwise be subjected to on the internet.
How to Troubleshoot Basic TCP/IP Problems - This article describes
how to troubleshoot some common network communication problems you may experience when you use TCP/IP as your network protocol. These problems
usually fall into one of the following two categories: You are unable to connect to a specific IP address or you are unable to connect to
a specific host or NetBIOS name. If you are unable to connect to a specific IP address, the problem is related to basic connectivity.
If you are able to connect to a specific IP address, but you are not able to connect using the host or NetBIOS name for that IP address,
the problem is related to name resolution.
International Journal of Internet Science (IJIS) - A peer reviewed open
access journal for empirical findings, methodology, and theory of social and behavioral science concerning the Internet and its implications for
individuals, social groups, organizations, and society.
Internet - Net news and resources on Web development, Java, browsers, e-commerce, a list of
over 3,000 ISPs, Internet stocks, technology.
Internet Archive - Working to prevent the Internet - a new medium with major historical significance - and
other "born-digital" materials from disappearing into the past. Collaborating with institutions including the Library of Congress and the Smithsonian, it is working to preserve a record for generations to come.
Internet Archive Wayback Machine - Building a digital library of Internet sites and other cultural
artifacts in digital form. Like a paper library, it provides free access to researchers, historians, scholars, and the general public.
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) - The non-profit corporation that
was formed to assume responsibility for the IP address space allocation, protocol parameter assignment, domain name system management, and
root server system management functions previously performed under U.S. Government contract by IANA and other entities.
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) - International community of network designers, operators,
vendors, and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet.
Internet FAQs Archive - This archive contains Usenet Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) postings
in Hypertext format and in FTP archive textual format.
Internet Hall of Fame - A recognition program and virtual museum that celebrates the living history of the Internet and the individuals whose extraordinary contributions have made the Internet, its worldwide availability and use, and its transformative nature possible.
Internet Slang - Acronym finder reveals and explaisn the meanings of over 1000 internet abbreviations
Internet Society (Hong Kong) - Dedicated to the open, unencumbered, beneficial use of the Internet.
Provides leadership in addressing issues that confront the future of the Internet, and is the organisational home for the groups responsible for
Internet infrastructure standards, including the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Architecture Board (IAB).
Internet Society (ISOC) - A professional membership society with more than 150 organization
and 16,000 individual members in over 180 countries. It provides leadership in addressing issues that confront the future of the Internet, and is
the organization home for the groups responsible for Internet infrastructure standards, including the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and
the Internet Architecture Board (IAB).
Internet Society Geneva (ISOCGVA) - The Geneva Chapter of the Internet Society is the
organization for those people who are interested in and active on the Internet in the larger Geneva area.
Internet Traffic Report - Monitors the flow of data around the world, displaying
a value between zero and 100. Higher values indicate faster and more reliable connections.
Internet2 - A consortium being led by over 170 universities working in partnership with industry
and government to develop and deploy advanced network applications and technologies, accelerating the creation of tomorrow's Internet. Internet2
is recreating the partnership among academia, industry and government that fostered today's Internet in its infancy.
Internet/Cyberspace Democracy - Archives the websites of entities advocating universal,equal, and uncensored access to, and use of, online information; those contesting the notion of information as a commodity; those advocating non-capitalist and non-hierarchical models of online functioning and governance, etc.
InternetNews - Provides real-time news updated throughout the business day, covering IT issues
and Internet-related technologies for corporate managers and hi-tech professionals.
InterNIC - Information regarding Internet domain name registration services, including the InterNIC FAQs.
IP Address Lookup - Helps you to find information about your current IP address or any other IP
address. It supports both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.
IP Tools - Including: Google HomePage Widget (Add IP-Lookup to your Google HomePage);
Name Server Search (Find Domain Name Server (DNS) name with their IP address); IP Address Conversion (Convert an IPv4 address
to decimal, hexadecimal, octal or IPv6); IP Port Information and Security Scanning; IP Documentation (RFCs); IP-Lookup (IPv4 and IPv6 Address
informatin (whois, location).
IPNetInfo - A small utility that allows you to easily find all available
information about an IP address: The owner of the IP address, the country/state name, IP addresses range, contact information (address,
phone, fax, and email), and more.
IPv6 - IPv6 is short for "Internet Protocol Version 6 ". IPv6 is
"next generation" protocol designed by the IETF to replace the current version Internet Protocol, IP
Version 4 ("IPv4").
IPv6 Test - A free service that checks your IPv6 and IPv4 connectivity and speed. Diagnose
connection problems, discover which address(es) you are currently using to browse the Internet, and what is your browser's protocol of choice when
both v6 and v4 are available.
IPv6 Information Center (Comcast) - This site has the latest information about Comcast's IPv6-related
work, and is regularly updated as our IPv6 deployment continues. Also see:
IT History Society - Supports historical research, archival acquisitions, archival processing, historical writing, writing of educational material, public lectures, workshops, conferences, educational courses, short stories, novels, films, plays, exhibits, museums, web pages, and other activities that feature IT history as a topic.
Jigsaw - A technology incubator created by Google, and now operated as a subsidiary of Alphabet Inc. Based in New York City, Jigsaw is dedicated to understanding global challenges and applying technological solutions, from countering extremism, online censorship and cyberattacks, to protecting access to information.
Learning, Freedom and the Web - Anya Kamenetz and Mozilla have
released a great book called Learning, Freedom & the Web. It details many of the
activities and ideas generated at Mozilla's eponymous festival held in 2010, "a 500 person meta-hackfest that took place in a Barcelona
city square." The free book features participant interviews, project highlights, photographs and blog posts from the festival, as well as related
content from across the Web reflecting on ideas around learning, freedom and the Web.
Life on the Internet - PBS Online's Life On The Internet examines the
ways people use the Internet and its impact on us.
LivingInternet - Comprehensive source of information about the Internet.
LizardTech - Develops imaging software and solutions that simplify and enhance the distribution,
management and control of digital images and documents. LizardTech focuses on solutions that provide users with bandwidth optimization and
instant access to high-resolution, multipurpose digital images and multimedia content.
LongURL - Avoid phishing, malware, and viruses by examining short URLs before visiting them. Find out where links really take you. A safer, more convenient web browsing by revealing the destination of shortened URLs like those of TinyURL.com, bit.ly, is.gd, and more.
Marco Civil - Law setting forth the principles, guarantees, rights and obligations for the use of the Internet in Brazil.
Media Metrix - Internet and digital media measurement worldwide.
Global source for accurate, reliable and timely behavioral data at the core of its clients' critical strategic business decisions.
File: Blocking Unwanted Parasites with a Hosts File - You can use your "hosts" file to block ads, banners, 3rd party cookies, 3rd party page
counters, web bugs, and even most hijackers. In many cases using a well designed "hosts" file can speed the loading of web pages by not having
to wait for these ads, annoying banners, hit counters, etc. to load. This also helps to protect your privacy and security by blocking sites that
may track your viewing habits, also known as "click-thru tracking" or data miners. MVPS Hosts File includes most major parasites, hijackers
and unwanted adware/spyware programs. This page explains it all and its "hosts" file is the best I've seen anywhere. I use it and highly recommend
MX Toolbox - This test will list MX records for a domain in priority order.
The MX lookup is done directly against the domain's authoritative name server, so changes to MX Records should show up instantly.
You can click Diagnostics , which will connect to the mail server, verify reverse DNS records,
perform a simple Open Relay check and measure response time performance. You may also check each MX record (IP Address)
against 147 DNS based blacklists (commonly called RBLs, DNSBLs).
Netcraft Web Server Survey - A survey of Web Server software
usage on Internet connected computers. Collects and collates as many hostnames providing an http service as can be found, and systematically
polls each one with an HTTP request for the server name.
netomat - Netomat is a browser only by convention. With netomat, the user has
a dialogue with the Internet. You can ask the net a question using natural language. Netomat responds by flowing text, images and audio
from the net to your screen. You respond or ask further questions or write keywords and the flow of data to your desktop is altered in response.
The data is not constrained by a web page or site but free floating and independent. netomat can retrieve almost all types of data that resides on
NetScanTools - A leader in Internet security technology, provides a broad range of internet
utility solutions to individuals and companies. NetScanTools is one of the most widely used Network Information Utilities and a pioneer
in the grouped network utilities arena.
NetZero - Internet service that provides consumers with free and easy access to the Internet
while offering advertisers a highly effective way to target those users.
Next Web, The - News about Internet technology, business and culture.
NoScript - Provides extra protection for Firefox, Seamonkey and other mozilla-based browsers. This free, open
of your choice (e.g. your online bank). NoScript's unique whitelist based pre-emptive script blocking approach prevents exploitation of security
vulnerabilities with no loss of functionality. Provides powerful anti-XSS and anti-clickjacking protection.
nslookup - Find the IP address or hostname of a machine.
OpenDNS - Improving the safety and speed of the Domain Name System.
OpenMedia.ca - Work towards an informed and participatory digital policy, safeguarding the possibilities of
an open and affordable Internet.
OpenNet Initiative - A joint project whose goal is to monitor and report on internet filtering and surveillance
practices by nations. The project employs a number of technical means, as well as an international network of investigators, to determine the extent
and nature of government-run internet filtering programs.
PANDORA Archive - The National Library of Australia archives indexed or abstracted Australian Internet
publications and provide a persistent identifier for them, guaranteeing that links from citations in indexes and abstracts to the copy in the archive
will remain permanently viable.
Perma.cc - Helps scholars, journals and courts create permanent links to the online sources cited in their work. When a user creates a Perma.cc link, Perma.cc archives the referenced content and generates a link to an archived record of the page. Regardless of what may happen to the original source, the archived record will always be available through the Perma.cc link.
People for Internet Responsibility (PFIR) - PFIR is a resource for discussion, analysis,
and information regarding domain name policy, spam, security, encryption, freedom of speech issues, privacy, content rating and filtering, and other
Pew Internet and American Life - Creates and funds original, academic-quality research that
explores the impact of the Internet on children, families, communities, the work place, schools, health care and civic/political life.
Plagiarism - Information on Internet plagiarism and how Turnitin and iThenticate are used by educators and content
creators to fight plagiarism and restore integrity to written work.
Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS) - The PICS specification enables labels
(metadata) to be associated with Internet content. It was originally designed to help parents and teachers control what children access
on the Internet, but it also facilitates other uses for labels, including code signing and privacy.
Port Scanning at AuditMyPc - Port scanning is one of the most popular
reconnaissance techniques attackers use to discover services they can break into. All machines connected to a Local Area Network (LAN) or Internet run
many services that listen at well-known and not so well known ports. By port scanning the attacker finds which ports are available (i.e., what service
might be listing to a port). Essentially, a port scan consists of sending a message to each port, one at a time. The kind of response received indicates
whether the port is used and can therefore be probed further for weakness.
Public Knowledge (PK) - A Washington DC based advocacy group working to defend your
rights in the emerging digital culture. PK is a group of lawyers, technologists, lobbyists, academics, volunteers and activists dedicated to fortifying
and defending a vibrant information commons.
Public Netbase t0 Institute for New Culture Technologies - Organizes exhibitions,
events, symposia and workshops. Since 1998, it has attracted more than 75.000 visitors. The net culture institute provides more than 1200 artists,
cultural workers, adolescents, project groups, and initiatives with e-mail accounts, web space, fully equipped project work spaces, proficient technical
support and the transfer of technology know-how, thus enabling them to actively participate in the shaping of the World Wide Web and global data
Redirect Visitors To a New Page / Site - If you've
moved a few pages or even a whole site, here are a few ways to get your visitors to where they were going by automatically redirecting them.
Requests for Comments (RFC) Editor - Requests for Comments (RFCs) form a series
of notes, started in 1969, about the Internet. The notes discuss aspects of computer communication, focusing on networking protocols, procedures,
programs, and concepts but also including meeting notes, opinion, and sometimes humor. RFC Editor is the publisher of the RFCs.
RIPE - RIPE(Reseaux IP Europeens) is a collaborative organization open to organizations
and individuals operating wide area IP networks in Europe and beyond. The objective of RIPE is to ensure the administrative
and technical coordination necessary to enable operation of a pan-European IP network.
RORweb - ROR (Resources of a Resource) is a rapidly growing independant XML format for
describing any object of your content in a generic fashion, so any search engine can better understand that content. This is the official ROR website.
Sam Spade Tools - Search, browser, anonymity, addressing
and other Internet-related tools.
Save the Internet - This is about Internet freedom. Network Neutrality -
the First Amendment of the Internet - ensures that the public can view the smallest blog just as easily as the largest corporate Web site by preventing
Internet companies like AT&T from rigging the playing field for only the highest-paying sites. But Internet providers like AT&T,
Verizon and Comcast are spending millions of dollars lobbying Congress to gut Net Neutrality. Decisions being made now will
shape the future of the Internet for a generation. Before long, all media - TV, phone and the Web - will come to your home via the same broadband
connection. The dispute over Net Neutrality is about who'll control access to new and emerging technologies. The nation's largest telephone
and cable companies - including AT&T, Verizon, Comcast and Time Warner - want to be Internet gatekeepers, deciding which Web
sites go fast or slow and which won't load at all. Also see FAQ on Net Neutrality.
Schema - This site provides a collection of schemas, i.e., html tags, that webmasters can use to markup their
pages in ways recognized by major search providers. Search engines including Bing, Google and Yahoo! rely on this markup to improve
the display of search results, making it easier for people to find the right web pages.
Schemes for Organizing the Web - A clearinghouse of World Wide
Web sites that have applied or adopted standard classification schemes or controlled vocabularies to organize or provide enhanced access to Internet
Scout Report - Weekly publication offering a selection of new and
newly discovered Internet resources of interest to researchers and educators.
Search Engine Watch - Visitors to Search Engine Watch fall into two groups: webmasters,
web marketers and others involved with creating and promoting web sites, and search engine users, everyone from researchers, librarians and general
web surfers who want to know how best to find things using search engines.
Self-Regulatory Program for Online Behavioral Advertising - Building on the Self-Regulatory Principles for Online Behavioral Advertising (Principles) released in
July 2009, the nation's largest media and marketing associations have come together to launch this Program, which gives consumers a better understanding
of and greater control over ads that are customized based on their online behavior (also called "interest-based"
advertising). Register to receive information about
how to be listed on the Consumer Opt-Out Page, where consumers will be able to easily opt-out of receiving online behavioral advertising
from some or all participating companies.
SEOmoz - Develops SEO software, provides a robust link intelligence API, hosts a vibrant SEO community.
Learn more about SEOmoz PRO, a complete set of software, tools, and resources to maximize your
search engine optimization.
SILC Project - Develops the Secure Internet Live Conferencing protocol (SILC), which is
designed to provide the most rich featured conferencing services and high security. The SILC Project has been coordinating the protocol
development for the past few years and the protocol specifications have been made available through the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
The SILC Project's goal is to fully standardize the SILC protocol in the IETF.
SixOrNot - A Firefox extension which makes it easy for you to identify when the website you're connecting to supports the current generation Internet Protocol (version 6). It also allows you to see a list of all the servers contacted to load a page, along with the IP address your browser connected to to do so. DNS information about each server is also available so that you can see if a site could potentially be loaded via IPv6 if your local connection supported it (or to identify when connections were performed via IPv4 when they shouldn't have been). Also shown is whether the connection was made using TLS (along with the cipher used, and whether the certificate uses extended validation) and information about any proxy used for the connection.
SixXS - A free, non-profit, non-cost service for Local Internet Registries (LIR's) and endusers.
Provides a common portal to help company engineers find their way with IPv6 networks deploying IPv6 to their customers in a rapid, controllable
fashion. Provides a whitelabel IPv6 Tunnel Broker and Ghost Route Hunter, IPv6 route monitoring tool, and other services.
Solid - A project led by Prof. Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web, taking place at MIT. The project aims to radically change the way Web applications work today, resulting in true data ownership as well as improved privacy.
Speedtest.net - Test your Internet connection bandwidth to locations around the world with this interactive
broadband speed test.
SpeedUs - Online guide to high speed Internet news and information.
Stanford Law School Center for Internet and Society - Brings together scholars, academics,
legislators, students, programmers, security researchers, and scientists to study the interaction of new technologies and the law and to examine
how the synergy between the two can either promote or harm public goods like free speech, privacy, public commons, diversity, and scientific inquiry.
The CIS strives as well to improve both technology and law, encouraging decision makers to design both as a means to further democratic
Statistics and Metrics for IT Managers - Internet usage, demographics, web traffic, stats, statistics,
audience, pageviews, impressions, hits, traffic, performance, most popular, online population, metric.
Stockholm Internet Forum - A conference that aims to deepen the discussions on how freedom and openness on the internet can promote economic and social development worldwide. Its held annually in April or May.
TCP/UDP Port List - This is a list
of Internet socket port numbers used by protocols of the Transport Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite for the establishment of host-to-host communications.
Tech Law Journal - News, records, and analysis of legislation, litigation, and regulation
affecting the computer and Internet industry.
Tor: Anonymity Online - An anonymous Internet communication system. Tor is a toolset
for a wide range of organizations and people that want to improve their safety and security on the Internet. Using Tor can help you anonymize
web browsing and publishing, instant messaging, IRC, SSH, and other applications that use the TCP protocol. Tor also
provides a platform on which software developers can build new applications with built-in anonymity, safety, and privacy features.
Teredo Overview - Teredo is an IPv6 transition technology that provides address assignment and host-to-host automatic tunneling for unicast IPv6 traffic when IPv6/IPv4 hosts are located behind one or multiple IPv4 network address translators (NATs). To traverse IPv4 NATs, IPv6 packets are sent as IPv4-based User Datagram Protocol (UDP) messages. This article provides an overview of Teredo, including Teredo addresses and packet structures, and detailed explanations of how communication is initiated between Teredo clients, Teredo host-specific relays, and IPv6-only hosts using the IPv4 Internet, the IPv6 Internet, Teredo servers, and Teredo relays.
Triple-C - A journal focusing on critical information society studies and critical studies of the roles of media, digital media, the Internet, information, communication and culture in society.
UK Web Archive - Here you can see how sites have changed over time, locate
information no longer available on the live Web and observe the unfolding history of a spectrum of UK activities represented online.
URLOpener - Open a whole list of URLs at the same time. Paste URLs into the field provided and press Submit.
vCard - Wikipedia backgrounder: vCard is a file format standard for electronic business cards. vCards are often attached to e-mail messages, but can be exchanged in other ways, such as on the World Wide Web or instant messaging. They can contain name and address information, phone numbers, e-mail addresses, URLs, logos, photographs, and audio clips. Also see vCard Maker.
Visualware - Provides you traceroute, ping, and geographical
location information from its server in Fairfax, Virginia, U.S.
Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP)- Internet Voice, also known as Voice
over Internet Protocol (VoIP), is a technology that allows you to make telephone calls using a broadband Internet connection instead of a
regular (or analog) phone line. Some services using VoIP may only allow you to call other people using the same service, but others may
allow you to call anyone who has a telephone number - including local, long distance, mobile, and international numbers. Also, while some services
only work over your computer or a special VoIP phone, other services allow you to use a traditional phone through an adaptor.
Wayback Machine - Allows browsing of web documents over multiple time periods. The Site Search feature of the Wayback Machine is based on an index built by evaluating terms from hundreds of billions of links to the homepages of more than 350 million sites. Search results are ranked by the number of captures in the Wayback and the number of relevant links to the site's homepage.
Web 2.0 - The term Web 2.0 refers to a second generation of services available on the World Wide Web that lets people collaborate and share information online. In contrast
to the first generation, Web 2.0 gives users an experience closer to desktop applications than the traditional static Web pages. Web 2.0
applications often use a combination of techniques devised in the late 1990s, including public web serviceAPIs (dating from 1998), Ajax (1998), and web syndication (1997). They often allow for mass participation (web-based social
software). The concept may include blogs and wikis.
Web of Trust (WOT) - A free website reputation, rating and review tool that helps find trustworthy websites and protects against online scams, untrustworthy links, and unreliable web stores. Free add-on for Firefox, IE, Chrome, Opera and Safari browsers.
Web Robots Page - Web Robots (also known as Web Wanderers, Crawlers, or Spiders),
are programs that traverse the Web automatically. Search engines such as Google use them to index the web content, spammers use them to
scan for email addresses, and they have many other uses. On this site you can learn more about web robots.
webclipping - With WebClipping.com, you'll know if you, your products or services
are mentioned anywhere on the Internet. Provides relevant, timely and accurate information about you or your company's mention in the online press;
competitors' activities; potential acquisitions or mergers; consumers' views - positive and negative - about your company and products; copyright
or trademark abuse; grumblings from unhappy employees or customers; false or misleading product claims or even innovative new uses for your products.
WebmasterWorld - Discussion forum on Internet searching and search engines.
Website Down Check - This website down checker tool tests a site's status in real time. Is it down
for just you? Simply enter (or copy and paste from the address bar) the URL address of the unavailable website to check for connection errors/problems.
WebSitePulse - A leading provider of global, independent and objective monitoring of the availability and performance of web sites, servers and network components, web applications and e-business transactions, web-based and e-mail systems. Its advanced web monitoring service ensures reliable early problem and error detection with multi-stage verification process, followed by real-time multimedia alerts. Detailed reports and website diagnostic tools allow web system owners and operators to quickly locate and troubleshoot any problem, minimizing the downtime of their web systems. Also see Free Tools.
WebWise - The Internet made simple by the BBC
Online: news, glossary, questions, basics, cases, features, columns.
WELL, The - There is nothing quite like The WELL, and the secret has a lot to do with its evolution.
Stewart Brand and Larry Brilliant founded the Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link in 1985, starting with a dialog between the fiercely independent
writers and readers of the Whole Earth Review. This set the tone for the playful intellectual and social gathering that continues today. The
WELL social experience continues to evolve and surprise.
What is a Name Server? - Explains what a name server is, and how name servers are used to direct the traffic of your website to a specific web server at a web host.
What is DHCP? - DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. DHCP is at the heart of assigning you (and everyone) their IP address. The key word in DHCP is protocol-the guiding rules and process for Internet connections for everyone, everywhere. DHCP is consistent, accurate and works the same for every computer. Also see Wikipedia.
My IP Address? - Provides IP address lookup, location, proxy detection, email tracing, IP hiding tips, blacklist check,
speed test, and forums.
WhatIsMyIP - Fast, easy way to determine your IP address.
Where is my domain name routing? - A tool that performs the necessary lookups to check where a domain name is routing, then graphically displays this information for easy review.
Whois Domain Tools - Research domain ownership with Whois Lookup. Get ownership info, IP address
management, rank, traffic, SEO, & more. Find available domains and domains for sale.
Woorank - Instant, thourough, SEO website review tool.
World Wide Web Consortium - A repository of information about the World Wide Web for developers
and users; reference code implementations to promote standards; various sample applications to demonstrate uses of new technology.
World Wide Web Foundation - Established in 2009 by Web inventor Sir Tim Berners-Lee. Working to establish the open Web as a global public good and a basic right, ensuring that everyone can access and use it freely. Also see:
Web Index - Designed and produced by the World Wide Web Foundation, the Web Index is the first multi-dimensional measure of the World Wide Web's contribution to development and human rights globally. It covers 81 countries, incorporating indicators that assess the areas of universal access; freedom and openness; relevant content; and empowerment.
KWSnet is an Internet subject directory providing special attention to U.S. national and international news, the arts, computing, culture, environment, law, literature, media, politics, science
and technology. Based in San Francisco, California, KWSnet contains over 125,000 annotated links to resources worldwide. Use Search KWSnet, located at the top of each page, to search within this site. Use Ctrl-F (Windows) or ⌘-F (Mac) to search within individual pages.
KWSnet Twitter provides news, culture, environment, media, politics, sci-tech, society, #art, #comics, #politicalcartoon, #illustration, #botd, #obit, but KWSnet is taking an extended leave of absence from the social networking service; it is not posting there at this time.
My Zotero Library provides news articles, primary and secondary sources, and bibliographic information for your research. More information on Zotero – a powerful, easy-to-use research tool – can be found at its site. Also recommended, subscribe to My Zotero Library RSS content for the latest updates.
KWSnet is completely non-commercial. It has no commercial objective or emphasis. Instead, it is intended for educational purposes, research, and
personal use. It is updated regularly.
KWSnet is IPv6 enabled, HTTPS deployed, and fully HTML5 compliant.
KWSnet may be contacted via email with any comments, suggestions or link submissions. KWSnet is designed and maintained, in its entirety, by Kirk W. Smith.